Measuring change management in manufacturing processes : a measurement method for simulation-game-based process development
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Doctoral thesis (monograph)
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VTT publications, 474
AbstractThe aim of this research is to find an answer to the research problem, which is "How can change management be measured in order to help manufacturing companies develop their manufacturing processes?" To solve the research problem, a constructive action research method is applied. The proposed solution to the research problem, i.e., a change management measurement system, is developed based on principles found in project management literature, process change management literature, performance measurement literature, three consultant surveys, and three case projects. Two of these three case projects applied simulation games as developmental tool, while one applied computer simulation. The proposed change management measurement system is evaluated through these three case projects, and thereafter both practised and further elaborated through two new case projects. The two new case projects are compared for gaining more sophisticated understanding of emerging patterns, and improvement suggestions for simulation-game-based change process utilising the change management measurement system are brought forward. Finally, the results are discussed, and the research and its contribution are evaluated through the quality criteria developed for this research. The measures in the change management measurement system are classified into two types: the first type gauges change project management itself, and the second assesses the outcomes of the change project, i.e., the improvements gained in manufacturing operations. Both of these types are measured in three dimensions: human resources, processes and technology, which are further divided into effectiveness and efficiency. Effectiveness is defined as the external, strategic performance: "doing the right thing," where strategically correct processes are developed, and strategically sound targets are pursued. Effectiveness includes adaptability. Efficiency is defined as the internal, operational performance: "doing it right," reaching the objectives of the change project economically and ideally with the best possible input/output. Consequently, the change management measurement system forms 12 measurement dimensions out of which six dimensions measure change project management itself and the other six dimensions measure changes in the manufacturing operations. The proposed change management measurement process suggest that particular attention should be paid to measurement and consequent timely reactions in the early phases of the project. Reactions to early feedback enable rapid learning and a successful project trajectory can be achieved already in the early phases of the project. Thereafter, through continuous measurement and consequent timely reactions, a successful project trajectory can be maintained until the project end. The case results suggest that there is a need for balanced change management measurement where both the change project management and the manufacturing operations management are measured. The balanced measurement improves the systematics and coherence of the change process; thus also the change management capability of the organisation is enhanced. In addition, it is proposed that the measurement system should flexibly allow customised measures for all the project steps. Furthermore, the research results support the idea that one key factor for success is how well the project management team uses the available measurement system, i.e. how well the measurement related tasks are performed. In change management capability improvement the measurement of human resource subject matters is fundamental to success, and it is proposed that in future research cycles, particular attention should be paid to development of measures concerning psychological, behavioural and teamwork subject matters.
industrial management, change management, measurement, performance, quality control, modification, process control, evaluation, innovation, manufacture, processing, simulation, efficiency