Simulation of transport in the FT-2 tokamak up to the electron scale with GENE

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2022-01
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
11
Series
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Volume 64, issue 1
Abstract
Prior experimental work on the FT-2 tokamak has observed electron density fluctuations at electron Larmor radius scales using the enhanced scattering (ES) diagnostic (Gusakov et al 2006 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 48 A371-6, Gurchenko and Gusakov 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 124035). Gyrokinetic GENE simulations of conditions at the upper hybrid resonance layer probed by the ES diagnostic show the presence of the anticipated turbulence from the electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven instability in linear and nonlinear simulations. Ion-scale turbulence is responsible for majority of the transport via trapped electron modes, while impurities act to merge the spectrum of the ion and the electron scale instabilities into a continuum. The linear spectrum at electron scales is characterized by maximal growth rate at a significant ballooning angle θ 0, and at ion scales the turbulence is broad in the ballooning angle distribution. The neoclassical shearing rate obtained from GENE breaks symmetry in nonlinear simulations of ETG turbulence, which manifests itself as an asymmetric turbulence spectrum. The electron density fluctuation spectrum obtained with GENE corresponds well to the ES measurement at electron scales, as do the fluxes obtained from the ion-scale simulations.
Description
Keywords
electron temperature gradient mode, ballooning angle, drift-wave turbulence, gyrokinetic simulation, enhanced scattering, symmetry breaking, PLASMA TURBULENCE, SCATTERING, COMPONENT, DYNAMICS, WAVES
Other note
Citation
Janhunen, S, Merlo, G, Gurchenko, A, Gusakov, E, Jenko, F & Kiviniemi, T 2022, ' Simulation of transport in the FT-2 tokamak up to the electron scale with GENE ', Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, vol. 64, no. 1, 015005 . https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6587/ac318c