State-of-the-art and Technologies in Hydrogen Production and Distribution

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Sähkötekniikan korkeakoulu | Master's thesis
Sustainable Energy Systems and Markets
Degree programme
Master's Programme in Advanced Energy Solutions
Global energy demand has been constantly rising for several decades due to industrialization, technological advancement, urbanization, and population growth. This has caused big environmental damage since the main energy sources are all fossil fuel-based that release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and greenhouse gas emissions. Lately, interest in the usage of renewable energy sources has grown significantly, especially solar and wind energies. Although the technological development in the renewable energy field has significantly progressed, it is still far from its full potential due to its variable and fluctuating output that is negatively affecting renewable system reliability. From here, the idea of using hydrogen as an energy carrier has emerged since it can help make renewable power systems more reliable and complement their usage, unlocking their full potential. This thesis is a literature-based state-of-the-art review that studies different hydrogen production, storage, and distribution methods. Conventional hydrogen production technologies and their environmental impacts are discussed since they are mainly depending on hydrocarbons that release an enormous amount of greenhouse gases. Future biomass and water-splitting hydrogen production methods with different levels of maturity are also studied, their advantages, disadvantages, and environmental impact are evaluated. More detailed research is carried out on three main types of electrolyzers; Alkaline, Proton exchange membrane, and Solid oxide electrolyzers. In addition, storing hydrogen in gaseous, liquefied, and hydride forms is studied and different types of storage vessels are mentioned and compared based on the changing hydrogen properties in different states and forms. Furthermore, different hydrogen transportation methods are discussed with the aim to find the most suitable distribution means for different scenarios, whether for local or international distribution. Overall, this study aims to provide ideas for different integrated hydrogen systems that can complement renewable energy sources usage in different scenarios and conditions in order to reach carbon neutrality.
Belahcen, Anouar
Thesis advisor
Martin, Floran
green hydrogen, renewables, electrolyzers, hydrogen storage and transpot
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