Thermally trainable dual network hydrogels

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Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2023-12
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Language
en
Pages
10
1-10
Series
Nature Communications, Volume 14, issue 1
Abstract
Inspired by biological systems, trainable responsive materials have received burgeoning research interests for future adaptive and intelligent material systems. However, the trainable materials to date typically cannot perform active work, and the training allows only one direction of functionality change. Here, we demonstrate thermally trainable hydrogel systems consisting of two thermoresponsive polymers, where the volumetric response of the system upon phase transitions enhances or decreases through a training process above certain threshold temperature. Positive or negative training of the thermally induced deformations can be achieved, depending on the network design. Importantly, softening, stiffening, or toughening of the hydrogel can be achieved by the training process. We demonstrate trainable hydrogel actuators capable of performing increased active work or implementing an initially impossible task. The reported dual network hydrogels provide a new training strategy that can be leveraged for bio-inspired soft systems such as adaptive artificial muscles or soft robotics.
Description
Funding Information: We thank the provision of facilities and technical support by Aalto University at OtaNano - Nanomicroscopy Center (Aalto-NMC). We acknowledge fundings from Academy of Finland (Postdoctoral Researcher No. 331015 to H.Z., and Center of Excellence in Life-Inspired Hybrid Materials - LIBER No. 346108 to O.I.), China Scholarship Council (No. 202207960015 to Y.F.) and the European Research Council (Advanced Grant DRIVEN No. 742829 to O.I.).
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Citation
Hu, S, Fang, Y, Liang, C, Turunen, M, Ikkala, O & Zhang, H 2023, ' Thermally trainable dual network hydrogels ', Nature Communications, vol. 14, no. 1, 3717, pp. 1-10 . https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-39446-w