Bioinspired Functionally Graded Composite Assembled Using Cellulose Nanocrystals and Genetically Engineered Proteins with Controlled Biomineralization

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2021-10-21
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
11
Series
Advanced Materials, Volume 33, issue 42
Abstract
Nature provides unique insights into design strategies evolved by living organisms to construct robust materials with a combination of mechanical properties that are challenging to replicate synthetically. Hereby, inspired by the impact-resistant dactyl club of the stomatopod, a mineralized biocomposite is rationally designed and produced in the complex shapes of dental implant crowns exhibiting high strength, stiffness, and fracture toughness. This material consists of an expanded helicoidal organization of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) mixed with genetically engineered proteins that regulate both binding to CNCs and in situ growth of reinforcing apatite crystals. Critically, the structural properties emerge from controlled self-assembly across multiple length scales regulated by rational engineering and phase separation of the protein components. This work replicates multiscale biomanufacturing of a model biological material and also offers an innovative platform to synthesize multifunctional biocomposites whose properties can be finely regulated by colloidal self-assembly and engineering of its constitutive protein building blocks.
Description
Funding Information: This work was supported by Jenny and Antti Wihuri Foundation (Centre for Young Synbio Scientists). A.M. acknowledges financial support from the Singapore Ministry of Education through an Academic Research Fund Tier 3 grant (# MOE 2019‐T3‐1‐012). The authors would like to also acknowledge Academy of Finland's Photonics Research and Innovation (PREIN) flagship. The authors thank Daniel Werner and Ernesto Scoppola (Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces) for help with µCT‐ and synchrotron scattering experiments. Publisher Copyright: © 2021 The Authors. Advanced Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
Keywords
biomaterials, biomineralization, cellulose nanocrystals, dental implants, functional gradients, phase separation, protein engineering
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Citation
Mohammadi , P , Gandier , J-A , Nonappa , Wagermaier , W , Miserez , A & Penttilä , M 2021 , ' Bioinspired Functionally Graded Composite Assembled Using Cellulose Nanocrystals and Genetically Engineered Proteins with Controlled Biomineralization ' , Advanced Materials , vol. 33 , no. 42 , 2102658 . https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.202102658