Analysis and characterization of short-range and low-power radio technologies for Internet of Things: Protocol and Application

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School of Electrical Engineering | Doctoral thesis (article-based) | Defence date: 2021-02-09
Degree programme
136 + app. 118
Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS, 7/2021
Internet of Things (IoT) has revolutionized the concept of connectivity from only humans to almost everything capable of being connected. The goal of such a massive network of connected things is to improve the quality of lives and the world's economy via a wide range of applications including automotive, monitoring, healthcare, industrial automation, wearable, automated agriculture, smart grids, etc. In order to make the IoT fully functional, yet many building blocks of the IoT including identification, sensing, communications, computation, services and semantics need to be addressed. In this regard, communication technologies are required to connect surrounding heterogeneous objects to fulfill expected services. Among these technologies, short-range and low-power radio technologies are considered as major technologies for enabling Personal Area Networks (PANs) and Body Area Networks (BANs). Due to their importance, we have investigated the most important short-range and low-power radio technologies for the upcoming wave of Machine-to-machine (M2M) and IoT applications from throughput, power consumption, end-to-end delay, link budget and packet error rate perspectives. To serve this purpose, we have developed the related link-level and system-level tools for Wi-Fi Ha Low and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). In addition to simulations, we have conducted experimental studies for BLE and Backscatter Communication System (BCS). By the help of these studies, we have shed lights on some of the challenges related to short-range radio technologies. In addition, we have conducted a comprehensive survey of different time synchronization protocols for IoT deployment which provides a suitable tool for IoT practitioner in order to select appropriate components for their setup. The clock models and clock discipline algorithms are illustrated in atutorial format and their performance for different clock-relation models are evaluated by using simulated data for comparative fairness, computational and memory requirements. Finally, we have developed an end-to-end IoT application using a short-range, low-power radiotechnology. In particular, we have implemented a real-time coordination-based tracking application using low-cost BLE beacons. This application is developed based on the trilateration method to acquire the real-time location of workers and tools in the construction work sites. This application has been deployed and tested in real constriction sites in China and Finland. The results show that the implemented application can be used in the construction sites depending on the accuracy level.
Supervising professor
Jäntti, Riku, Prof., Aalto University, Department of Communications and Networking, Finland
Thesis advisor
Iraji, Sassan ,Dr., Apple, Germany
internet of things, short-range, low-power radio technologies, link-level and system- level characterizations, time synchronization, IoT applications
Other note
  • [Publication 1]: Behnam Badihi, Luis Felipe Del Carpio, Parth Amin, Anna Larmo, Miguel Lopez, and Dee Denteneer. Performance Evaluation of IEEE 802.11ah actuators. Proceedings of IEEE 83rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), pp. 1-5, Nanjing, China, May 2016.
    DOI: 10.1109/VTCSpring.2016.7504414 View at publisher
  • [Publication 2]: Behnam Badihi, Aleksi Liljemark, Muhammad Usman Sheikh, Jari Lietzén, and Riku Jäntti. Link Budget Validation for Backscatter-Radio System in Sub-1GHz. Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), pp. 1-6, Marrakesh, Morocco, April 2019.
    Full text in Acris/Aaltodoc:
    DOI: 10.1109/WCNC.2019.8885700 View at publisher
  • [Publication 3]: Behnam Badihi, Fayezeh Ghavimi, and Riku Jäntti. On the System-level Performance Evaluation of Bluetooth 5 in IoT: Open Office Case Study. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS), pp. 485-489, Oulu, Finland, August 2019.
    Full text in Acris/Aaltodoc:
    DOI: 10.1109/ISWCS.2019.8877223 View at publisher
  • [Publication 4]: Behnam Badihi, Jianyu Zhao, Siyan Zhuang, Olli Seppänen, and Riku Jäntti. Intelligent Construction Site: On Low Cost Automated Indoor Localization Using Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons. Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Wireless Sensors (ICWiSe), pp. 29-35, Penang, Malaysia, November 2019.
    Full text in Acris/Aaltodoc:
    DOI: 10.1109/ICWISE47561.2019.8971829 View at publisher
  • [Publication 5]: Behnam Badihi, Muhammad Usman Sheikh, Kalle Ruttik, and Riku Jäntti. On Performance Evaluation of BLE 5 In Indoor Environment: An Experimental Study. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, pp. 1-5, London, United Kingdom, August 2020.
    DOI: 10.1109/PIMRC48278.2020.9217132 View at publisher
  • [Publication 6]: Hüseyin Yigitler, Behnam Badihi, and Riku Jäntti. Overview of Time Synchronization for IoT Deployments: Clock Discipline Algorithms and Protocols. Sensors Journal, pp. 1-59, Published by MDPI, October 2020.
    DOI: 10.3390/s20205928 View at publisher
  • [Publication 7]: Muhammad Usman Sheikh, Behnam Badihi, Kalle Ruttik, and Riku Jäntti. Adaptive Physical Layer Selection for Bluetooth 5: Measurements and Simulations. Journal of Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, pp. 1-10, Published by Hindawi, January 2021.
    DOI: 10.1155/2021/8842919 View at publisher