High-pressure neutron study of the morphotropic lead-zirconate-titanate: Phase transitions in a two-phase system

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School of Science | A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
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Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 112, Issue 1
The present study was dedicated to the classical piezoelectric, lead-zirconate-titanate ceramic with composition Pb(Zr0.54Ti0.46)O3 at the Zr-rich side of the morphotropic phase boundary at which two phases co-exists. The pressure-induced changes in the phase fractions were studied by high-pressureneutronpowder diffraction technique up to 3 GPa and 773 K. The two co-existing phases were rhombohedral R3c and monoclinic Cm at room temperature and R3c and P4mm above 1 GPa and 400 K. The experiments show that pressure favors the R3c phase over the Cm and P4mm phases, whereas at elevated temperatures entropy favours the P4mm phase. At 1 GPa pressure, the transition to the cubic Pm3¯m phase occurred at around 600 K. Pressure lowers the Cm→P4mm transition temperature. The Cm phase was found to continuously transform to the P4mm phase with increasing pressure, which is inline with the usual notion that the hydrostatic pressure favours higher symmetry structures. At the same time, the phase fraction of the R3c phase was increasing, implying discontinuous Cm→R3cphase transition. This is in clear contrast to the polarization rotation model according to which the Cm would link the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases by being a phase in which the polarization would, more or less continuously, rotate from the tetragonal polarization direction to the rhombohedral direction. Pressure induces large changes in phase fractions contributing to the extrinsic piezoelectricity. The changes are not entirely reversible, as was revealed by noting that after high-pressure experiments the amount of rhombohedral phase was larger than initially, suggesting that on the Zr-rich side of the phase boundary the monoclinic phase is metastable. An important contribution to the intrinsic piezoelectricity was revealed: a large displacement of the B cations (Zr and Ti) with respect to the oxygen anions is induced by pressure.
piezoelectricity, ozone, polarization
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Frantti, J. & Fujioka, Y. & Zhang, J. & Wang, S. & Vogel, S. C. & Nieminen, Risto M. & Asiri, A. M. & Zhao, Y. & Obaid, A. Y. & Mkhalid, I. A. 2012. High-pressure neutron study of the morphotropic lead-zirconate-titanate: Phase transitions in a two-phase system. Journal of Applied Physics. Volume 112, Issue 1. 014104/1-7. ISSN 0021-8979 (printed). DOI: 10.1063/1.4733570.