Wavefield modeling and signal processing for sensor arrays of arbitrary geometry

dc.contributorAalto-yliopistofi
dc.contributorAalto Universityen
dc.contributor.advisorKoivunen, Visa, Academy Prof., Aalto University, Department of Signal Processing and Acoustics, Finland
dc.contributor.authorCosta, Mário Jorge
dc.contributor.departmentSignaalinkäsittelyn ja akustiikan laitosfi
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Signal Processing and Acousticsen
dc.contributor.schoolSähkötekniikan korkeakoulufi
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Electrical Engineeringen
dc.contributor.supervisorKoivunen, Visa, Academy Prof., Aalto University, Department of Signal Processing and Acoustics, Finland
dc.date.accessioned2013-10-15T09:00:17Z
dc.date.available2013-10-15T09:00:17Z
dc.date.dateaccepted2013-09-11
dc.date.defence2013-11-01
dc.date.issued2013
dc.description.abstractSensor arrays and related signal processing methods are key technologies in many areas of engineering including wireless communication systems, radar and sonar as well as in biomedical applications. Sensor arrays are a collection of sensors that are placed at distinct locations in order to sense physical phenomena or synthesize wavefields. Spatial processing from the multichannel output of the sensor array is a typical task. Such processing is useful in areas including wireless communications, radar, surveillance and indoor positioning. In this dissertation, fundamental theory and practical methods of wavefield modeling for radio-frequency array processing applications are developed. Also, computationally-efficient high-resolution and optimal signal processing methods for sensor arrays of arbitrary geometry are proposed. Methods for taking into account array nonidealities are introduced as well. Numerical results illustrating the performance of the proposed methods are given using real-world antenna arrays. Wavefield modeling and manifold separation for vector-fields such as completely polarized electromagnetic wavefields and polarization sensitive arrays are proposed. Wavefield modeling is used for writing the array output in terms of two independent parts, namely the sampling matrix depending on the employed array including nonidealities and the coefficient vector depending on the wavefield. The superexponentially decaying property of the sampling matrix for polarization sensitive arrays is established. Two estimators of the sampling matrix from calibration measurements are proposed and their statistical properties are established. The array processing methods developed in this dissertation concentrate on polarimetric beamforming as well as on high-resolution and optimal azimuth, elevation and polarization parameter estimation. The proposed methods take into account array nonidealities such as mutual coupling, cross-polarization effects and mounting platform reflections. Computationally-efficient solutions based on polynomial rooting techniques and fast Fourier transform are achieved without restricting the proposed methods to regular array geometries. A novel expression for the Cramér-Rao bound in array processing that is tight for real-world arrays with nonidealities in the asymptotic regime is also proposed. A relationship between spherical harmonics and 2-D Fourier basis, called equivalence matrix, is established. A novel fast spherical harmonic transform is proposed, and a one-to-one mapping between spherical harmonic and 2-D Fourier spectra is found. Improvements to the minimum number of samples on the sphere that are needed in order to avoid aliasing are also proposed.en
dc.format.extent204
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.identifier.isbn978-952-60-5347-9 (electronic)
dc.identifier.isbn978-952-60-5346-2 (printed)
dc.identifier.issn1799-4942 (electronic)
dc.identifier.issn1799-4934 (printed)
dc.identifier.issn1799-4934 (ISSN-L)
dc.identifier.urihttps://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/11115
dc.identifier.urnURN:ISBN:978-952-60-5347-9
dc.language.isoenen
dc.opnSwindlehurst, A. Lee, Prof., University of California at Irvine, USA
dc.opnPesavento, Marius, Prof., Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany
dc.publisherAalto Universityen
dc.publisherAalto-yliopistofi
dc.relation.haspart[Publication 1]: M. Costa, A. Richter, F. Belloni, and V. Koivunen, ”Polynomial rooting-based direction finding for arbitrary array configurations,“ in Proceeding of the 5th IEEE Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop (SAM), pp. 58-62, Darmstadt, Germany, July 21-23, 2008.
dc.relation.haspart[Publication 2]: M. Costa, A. Richter, and V. Koivunen, ”Low complexity azimuth and elevation estimation for arbitrary array configurations,“ in Proceeding of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), pp. 2185-2188, Taipei, Taiwan, April 19-24, 2009.
dc.relation.haspart[Publication 3]: M. Costa, A. Richter, and V. Koivunen, ”Azimuth, elevation, and polarization estimation for arbitrary polarimetric array configurations,“ in Proceeding of the 15th IEEE Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing (SSP), pp. 261-264, Cardiff, Wales, August 31-September 3, 2009.
dc.relation.haspart[Publication 4]: M. Costa, A. Richter, and V. Koivunen, ”Unifying spherical harmonic and 2-D Fourier decompositions of the array manifold,“ in Proceeding of the 43rd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, pp. 99-103, Pacific Grove, CA, USA, November 1-4, 2009.
dc.relation.haspart[Publication 5]: M. Costa, A. Richter, and V. Koivunen, ”Unified array manifold decomposition based on spherical harmonics and 2-D Fourier basis,“ IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 4634-4645, September, 2010.
dc.relation.haspart[Publication 6]: M. Costa, A. Richter, and V. Koivunen, ”Steering vector modeling for polarimetric arrays of arbitrary geometry,“ in Proceeding of the 6th IEEE Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop (SAM), pp. 265-268, Kibutz, Israel, October 4-7, 2010.
dc.relation.haspart[Publication 7]: M. Costa, A. Richter, and V. Koivunen, ”DoA and polarization estimation for arbitrary array configurations,“ IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 2330-2343, May, 2012.
dc.relation.haspart[Publication 8]: M. Costa and V. Koivunen, ”Incorporating array nonidealities into adaptive Capon beamformer for source tracking,“ in Proceeding of the 7th IEEE Workshop on Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing (SAM), pp. 445-448, Hoboken, New Jersey, June 17-20, 2012.
dc.relation.ispartofseriesAalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONSen
dc.relation.ispartofseries149/2013
dc.revPesavento, Marius, Prof., Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany
dc.revBengtsson, Mats, Associate Prof., Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Sweden
dc.subject.keywordsensor array signal processingen
dc.subject.keywordparameter estimationen
dc.subject.keywordbeamformingen
dc.subject.keywordmanifold separationen
dc.subject.keywordharmonic analysisen
dc.subject.keywordarray calibrationen
dc.subject.keywordarray nonidealitiesen
dc.subject.otherElectrical engineeringen
dc.titleWavefield modeling and signal processing for sensor arrays of arbitrary geometryen
dc.typeG5 Artikkeliväitöskirjafi
dc.type.dcmitypetexten
dc.type.ontasotDoctoral dissertation (article-based)en
dc.type.ontasotVäitöskirja (artikkeli)fi
local.aalto.digiauthask
local.aalto.digifolderAalto_66517
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