State-dependent TMS effects in the visual cortex after visual adaptation

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2022-02
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
8
129-136
Series
Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 134
Abstract
Objective: The impact of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been shown to depend on the initial brain state of the stimulated cortical region. This observation has led to the development of paradigms that aim to enhance the specificity of TMS effects by using visual/luminance adaptation to modulate brain state prior to the application of TMS. However, the neural basis of interactions between TMS and adaptation is unknown. Here, we examined these interactions by using electroencephalography (EEG) to measure the impact of TMS over the visual cortex after luminance adaptation. Methods: Single-pulses of neuronavigated TMS (nTMS) were applied at two different intensities over the left visual cortex after adaptation to either high or low luminance. We then analyzed the effects of adaptation on the global and local cortical excitability. Results: The analysis revealed a significant interaction between the TMS-evoked responses and the adaptation condition. In particular, when nTMS was applied with high intensity, the evoked responses were larger after adaptation to high than low luminance. Conclusion: This result provides the first neural evidence on the interaction between TMS with visual adaptation. Significance: TMS can activate neurons differentially as a function of their adaptation state.
Description
Funding Information: This work has been supported by the ESRC (ES/S014691/1). Publisher Copyright: © 2021 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Keywords
Adaptation, Electroencephalography, Luminance, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Visual cortex
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Citation
Guzmán López , J , Hernandez-Pavon , J C , Lioumis , P , Mäkelä , J P & Silvanto , J 2022 , ' State-dependent TMS effects in the visual cortex after visual adaptation : A combined TMS–EEG study ' , Clinical Neurophysiology , vol. 134 , pp. 129-136 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2021.08.020