Processing of radiation hard particle detectors on Czochralski silicon

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Doctoral thesis (article-based)
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Date
2008
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Language
en
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Verkkokirja (951 KB, 45,[8] s.)
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Abstract
The purpose of this work was to study the radiation hardness of particle detectors. Silicon detectors are cost-effective and have an excellent spatial resolution. Therefore, they are widely used in many high-energy physics experiments. It is known that oxygen improves the radiation hardness of silicon detectors. The natural way to have a high concentration of oxygen in silicon is to use magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-Si). MCz-Si has intrinsically a relatively uniform and high level of oxygen (5×1017 cm³) compared to regular float-zone silicon (FZ-Si). Such a level is hard to attain with other methods, namely the diffusion oxygenation of float-zone silicon. In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its potential upgrade, the luminosity and the fluencies of fast hadrons can be so high that detectors made of standard detector-grade FZ-Si might not survive the planned operating period. MCz-Si offers an improvement to the lifetime of particle detectors through improved radiation hardness. This thesis takes a process-oriented view of the potential of the MCz-Si material. The processing of radiation detectors on MCz-Si is described, the process is characterized from the process point of view, and the radiation hardness is studied after irradiations. There is also an emphasis on the intentional introduction of thermal donors (TDs) in high-resistivity MCz-Si material, and specifically on their potential in p-type MCz-Si detectors.
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silicon, radiation hardness, particle detector, magnetic Czochralski silicon, thermal donor
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  • [Publication 1]: E. Tuovinen, J. Härkönen, P. Luukka, and E. Tuominen, Intentional thermal donor activation in magnetic Czochralski silicon, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing 10 (2007) 179-184. © 2007 Elsevier Science. By permission.
  • [Publication 2]: E. Tuovinen, J. Härkönen, P. Luukka, E. Tuominen, E. Verbitskaya, V. Eremin, I. Ilyashenko, A. Pirojenko, I. Riihimäki, A. Virtanen, and K. Leinonen, Czochralski silicon detectors irradiated with 24 GeV/c and 10 MeV protons, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 568 (2006) 83-88. © 2006 Elsevier Science. By permission.
  • [Publication 3]: J. Härkönen, E. Tuovinen, Z. Li, P. Luukka, E. Verbitskaya, and V. Eremin, Recombination lifetime characterization and mapping of silicon wafers and detectors using the microwave photoconductivity decay (μPCD) technique, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing 9 (2006) 261-265. © 2006 Elsevier Science. By permission.
  • [Publication 4]: J. Härkönen, E. Tuovinen, P. Luukka, H.K. Nordlund, and E. Tuominen, Magnetic Czochralski silicon as detector material, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 579 (2007) 648-652. © 2007 Elsevier Science. By permission.
  • [Publication 5]: J. Härkönen, E. Tuovinen, P. Luukka, E. Tuominen, and Z. Li, p+/n−/n+ Cz-Si detectors processed on p-type boron-doped substrates with thermal donor induced space charge sign inversion, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 52 (2005) 1865-1868. © 2005 IEEE. By permission.
  • [Publication 6]: J. Härkönen, E. Tuovinen, P. Luukka, E. Tuominen, Z. Li, A. Ivanov, E. Verbitskaya, V. Eremin, A. Pirojenko, I. Riihimäki, and A. Virtanen, Particle detectors made of high-resistivity Czochralski silicon, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 541 (2005) 202-207. © 2005 Elsevier Science. By permission.
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