The weight function for charges - A rigorous theoretical concept for Kelvin probe force microscopy

dc.contributorAalto Universityen
dc.contributor.authorSöngen, Hagen
dc.contributor.authorRahe, Philipp
dc.contributor.authorNeff, Julia L.
dc.contributor.authorBechstein, Ralf
dc.contributor.authorRitala, Juha
dc.contributor.authorFoster, Adam
dc.contributor.authorKühnle, Angelika
dc.contributor.departmentGraduate School Materials Science in Mainz
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Nottingham
dc.contributor.departmentJohannes Gutenberg University Mainz
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Applied Physics
dc.description.abstractA comprehensive discussion of the physical origins of Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) signals for charged systems is given. We extend the existing descriptions by including the open-loop operation mode, which is relevant when performing KPFM in electrolyte solutions. We define the contribution of charges to the KPFM signal by a weight function, which depends on the electric potential and on the capacitance of the tip-sample system. We analyze the sign as well as the lateral decay of this weight function for different sample types, namely, conductive samples as well as dielectric samples with permittivities both larger and smaller than the permittivity of the surrounding medium. Depending on the surrounding medium the sign of the weight function can be positive or negative, which can lead to a contrast inversion for single charges. We furthermore demonstrate that the KPFM signal on thick dielectric samples can scale with the sample size - rendering quantitative statements regarding the charge density challenging. Thus, knowledge on the weight function for charges is crucial for qualitative as well as quantitative statements regarding charges beneath the tip.en
dc.description.versionPeer revieweden
dc.identifier.citationSöngen , H , Rahe , P , Neff , J L , Bechstein , R , Ritala , J , Foster , A & Kühnle , A 2016 , ' The weight function for charges - A rigorous theoretical concept for Kelvin probe force microscopy ' , Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 119 , no. 2 , 025304 , pp. 1-8 .
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dc.relation.ispartofseriesJOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICSen
dc.relation.ispartofseriesVolume 119, issue 2en
dc.subject.keywordKelvin probe force microscopy
dc.titleThe weight function for charges - A rigorous theoretical concept for Kelvin probe force microscopyen
dc.typeA1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessäfi