The interference of copper, iron and aluminum with hydrogen peroxide and its effects on reductive leaching of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2

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A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
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Separation and Purification Technology, Volume 281
Copper and iron are known to be effective alternative reducing agents to H2O2 in Li-ion battery leaching. The aim of this work is to study the effect of added H2O2 on its overconsumption to the side reactions such as oxidation of copper, iron, and aluminum in leaching of NMC 111 active material. The interactions between the reducing agents separately were first investigated (T = 30 °C, [H2SO4] = 2 M, t = 120 min). Elemental copper was found to be a less efficient reducing agent (78%) compared to aluminum (100%) in terms of Fe3+ reduced to Fe2+. Nevertheless, copper exhibited much higher rate of iron reduction than aluminum. Additionally, aqueous copper ions were found to cement on aluminum surface and redissolve in the presence of iron, thus acting as the metallic reducing agent. In contrast, in the presence of H2O2 ferrous iron and copper were rapidly oxidized resulting in the consumption of all reducing agents. These effects were confirmed also during the leaching of NMC (T = 30 °C, [H2SO4] = 1.5 M, t = 120min), which demonstrated that the leaching efficiency markedly decreased (∼63%) in the presence of H2O2 and Cu when compared to H2O2 alone (∼78%). Furthermore, results from NMC leaching showed that when copper-iron reductant or H2O2 were added separately, a much higher leaching efficiency was achieved (∼66% and ∼78%, respectively) in contrast to being added together (∼58%).
Funding Information: This research work has been supported by Business Finland BatCircle2.0 project (grant number 44886/31/2020), and the Academy of Finland’s RawMatTERS Finland Infrastructure (RAMI) based at Aalto University. The KIC InnoEnergy SE (KIC-IE) supported by the EIT a body of the European Union is thanked for supporting the project. Publisher Copyright: © 2021 The Authors
Leaching, Li-ion battery (LIB), Material efficiency, Metallic reducing agents, Overconsumption of HO, Recycling
Other note
Chernyaev , A , Zou , Y , Wilson , B P & Lundström , M 2022 , ' The interference of copper, iron and aluminum with hydrogen peroxide and its effects on reductive leaching of LiNi 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 ' , Separation and Purification Technology , vol. 281 , 119903 .