International diversification and European firm value : the role of operating efficiency

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A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
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Journal of European Real Estate Research, Volume 16, issue 3
Purpose: This study aims to investigate the impact of international diversification on the value and operating efficiency of European real estate firms. Design/methodology/approach: The study is conducted using a panel fixed effects regression model to estimate the relationship of international diversification with firm value and operating efficiency. International diversification is mainly measured via the negative of the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index (HHI) using property-level data. Firm value and operating efficiency are proxied by financial ratios observed annually from 2002 to 2021 at the firm level. Findings: The results demonstrate that international diversification has a negative effect on firm value. Additionally, it lowers operating efficiency by weakening a firm's ability to generate operating earnings from its assets. By examining whether the reduction in operating efficiency is due to the rental income channel or the capital gains channel, the authors find strong statistical evidence that international diversification negatively impacts capital gains. International diversification is negatively associated with net gains from property valuations (unrealized capital gains) and net profits from property disposals (realized capital gains). Research limitations/implications: The empirical analysis is limited to Europe. Originality/value: This paper extends the geographical diversification literature. While existing literature focuses on domestic diversification within the United States, this paper explores the effects of international diversification on European real estate firms. To the extent of the authors' knowledge, this is the first paper to examine the impact of geographical diversification on capital gains.
Publisher Copyright: © 2023, Islam Ibrahim and Heidi Falkenbach.
Capital gains, Diversification, European real estate, Firm value, Operating efficiency, Rental income
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Ibrahim , I & Falkenbach , H 2023 , ' International diversification and European firm value : the role of operating efficiency ' , Journal of European Real Estate Research , vol. 16 , no. 3 , pp. 381-397 .