Advanced spherical antenna measurements

No Thumbnail Available
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Doctoral thesis (article-based)
Checking the digitized thesis and permission for publishing
Instructions for the author
Department of Electrical and Communications Engineering
Sähkö- ja tietoliikennetekniikan osasto
Degree programme
63, [30]
Helsinki University of Technology Radio Laboratory publications. Report S, 273
Concrete guidelines for effectively performing spherical antenna measurements and for designing multi-probe systems will be provided. The work will mainly be restricted to antennas whose maximum cross-section dimension is in the order of 1-2 λ or less. Specific design guidelines for a very fast radiation pattern measurement system for mobile phone models will be provided. Information on practical aspects related to such a system will be provided by building a demonstrator system and testing it. Firstly, the errors in the total radiated power and the maximum electric field are illustrated by simulations of near-zone spherical antenna measurements of electrically relatively small AUTs (antennas under test) for various applied truncation numbers and for different measurement distances [P1]. Secondly, a novel iterative matrix method is presented that is shown to provide, for a fixed relatively small number field samples, a lower uncertainty in the determination of the radiated field of an AUT model than the traditional matrix method [P2]. Thirdly, it is shown that, for a fixed relatively small number field samples, the radiation pattern can generally be determined with a lower uncertainty from the complex data than the amplitude-only data [P3]. It is shown in [P4] that a high-order probe correction becomes increasingly significant with an increasing ratio between the radius of the minimum sphere of the AUT and the measurement distance. It is shown in [P5] that by enclosing the head phantom with a mobile phone inside the minimum sphere, and the calculation of the truncation number for the spherical wave expansion of the radiated field based on the radius of this minimum sphere in wavelengths, leads to an overestimation of the truncation number. It is illustrated by simulations for a mobile phone that by multiplying the truncation number for the mobile phone without a head phantom by a factor of approximately 1.2 leads to a reasonable truncation number for the mobile phone with the head phantom. It is demonstrated in [P6], by building and testing a spherical fully 3-D measurement system for mobile phone models (RAMS), that the radiation pattern of a typically-sized mobile phone model at approximately 1.8 GHz can be determined without its rotation with a relatively small uncertainty from the complex-valued signals gathered from only 32 dual-port probes on a spherical surface. Information on the reflectivity level inside RAMS will be provided. It is shown in [P7] that the complex radiation pattern of a mobile phone model can be determined without taking advantage of the field-disturbing radio-frequency feed cable to the mobile phone model during the measurement. It is shown in [P8] that, instead of a single spherical wave expansion, the use of multiple spherical wave expansions (MSWE) for the field characterization can lead to a smaller number required spherical modes for reaching a desired level of uncertainty in the determination of the radiation pattern. It will further be shown, that using the MSWE technique can also lead to the smaller number of required measurement locations.
spherical antenna measurement, mobile phone, radiation pattern, spherical wave expansion, probe correction
Other note
  • T. Laitinen, P. Vainikainen, Number of spherical wave modes required for the prediction of radiated EMI, Antenna Measurement Techniques Association, 21th Annual Meeting and Symposium (AMTA'99), Monterey Bay, CA, USA, Oct. 4-8 1999, pp. 425-430.
  • T. Laitinen, P. Vainikainen, T. Koskinen, Far-field measurements for mobile phones with small number of measurement locations, Electronics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 20, 2001, pp. 1255-1256.
  • T. Laitinen, P. Vainikainen, T. Koskinen, O. Kivekäs, Amplitude-only and complex field measurements for characterizing radiated fields of mobile terminal antennas from a small number of samples, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 54, No. 5, Oct. 2005, pp. 1989-1996.
  • T. A. Laitinen, J. M. Nielsen, S. Pivnenko, O. Breinbjerg, Errors of first-order probe correction for higher-order probes in spherical near-field antenna measurements, URSI International Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory, Pisa, Italy, May 23-27 2004, pp. 588-590.
  • T. Laitinen, P. Vainikainen, T. Koskinen, Influence of phantom head on measurements of radiated fields of mobile phones, Electronics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 5, 2001, pp. 292-293.
  • T. A. Laitinen, J. Ollikainen, C. Icheln, P. Vainikainen, Rapid spherical 3-D field measurement system for mobile terminal antennas, IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (IMTC'03), Vail, CO, USA, May 20-22 2003, pp. 968-972.
  • T. Laitinen, J. Toivanen, C. Icheln, P. Vainikainen, Spherical measurement system for determination of complex radiation patterns of mobile terminals, Electronics Letters, Vol. 40, No. 22, 2004, pp. 1392-1394.
  • T. Laitinen, P. Vainikainen, T. Koskinen, Multiple spherical wave expansions to characterise radiated fields of mobile phones, Journées Internationales de Nice sur les Antennes (JINA'02), Nice, France, Nov. 12-14 2002, pp. 23-26.
Permanent link to this item