Comparison of Russian and Finnish HVAC regulations

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Helsinki University of Technology | Diplomityö
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The aim of this master's thesis is to compare Finnish and Russian regulations and guidelines concerning HVAC systems. Based on extensive analysis of norms prevailing in both countries, the thesis provides a description of key differences between the Russian and Finnish codes. Special attention is paid to workplaces, which the Russian code treats as separate and different from other spaces. There are generally two types of indoor air design value: permissible and optinum, both of which are applied as a basis for designing certain classifications or systems. There are also two different values for outdoor air conditions, 'parameter A' and 'parameter B' for cold and warm seasons separately. There are more restrictions in the Russian norm for planning a common system for different premises or fire departments. The ventilation system has to he designed as natural ventilation, especially for residential premises, unless it is confirmed that a suitable indoor climate cannot be achieved with natural ventilation. External air must be supplied by powered ventilation to vestibules, air locks and some workplaces. Air heating must be planned for workplaces that operating more than 8 hours per day, and a reserve system must be planned and installed in some cases. Limits exist for maximum and minimum temperatures and maximum velocity of supply air jet, and these must be calculated using the formulas provided in the norm. Higher airflow rates are required for workplaces in the Russian norm. The required airflow rate for spaces in which unusual conditions prevail must be calculated using the procedures presented in the norm. The concentration levels of all extracted air are not to exceed the limits specified in the norm. Air extracted from workplaces must normally be filtrated. Filtration of supply air is not always required unless this is necessitated by the concentration limit of the supply air. The room air must usually be in balance, with the exception of certain premises. Air curtain units must be planned in some cases according to the Russian norm. There are further restrictions for installing different types of equipment in the same ventilation machine room. In the Russian norm, three different fire, air and return dampers are required for fire safety. On the whole, lower fire resistance is required in the Russian norm. Ducts have to be fire insulated also in their served zone. Emergency ventilation must be planned for some workplaces. There are precise and detailed procedures in the Russian norm for calculating all steps of the heating system. There is, however, no method for calculating the total energy demand of the building, so the calculations based on the Russian norm might result in a less economical heating system. There is only one method for calculating the smoke ventilation of all kinds of buildings. A mechanical or powered smoke ventilation system can be either automatically or manually activated according to the Russian norm. Natural smoke ventilation is allowed only for single-storey buildings in the Russian norm. The smoke flow to be removed from corridors is calculated to protect escape doors. Smoke exhaust terminal units are normally to be installed in corridors, halls and spaces without natural light.
Seppänen, Olli
Thesis advisor
Pihlajanmäki, Juha
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