Worth from waste: Utilizing a graphite‐rich fraction from spent lithium‐ion batteries as alternative reductant in nickel slag cleaning

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2021-07-19
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
25
Series
Minerals, Volume 11, issue 7
Abstract
One possible way of recovering metals from spent lithium‐ion batteries is to integrate the recycling with already existing metallurgical processes. This study continues our effort on integrating froth flotation and nickel‐slag cleaning process for metal recovery from spent batteries (SBs), using anodic graphite as the main reductant. The SBs used in this study was a froth fraction from flotation of industrially prepared black mass. The effect of different ratios of Ni‐slag to SBs on the time‐dependent phase formation and metal behavior was investigated. The possible influence of graphite and sulfur contents in the system on the metal alloy/matte formation was described. The trace element (Co, Cu, Ni, and Mn) concentrations in the slag were analyzed using the laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma‐mass spectrometry (LA‐ICP‐MS) technique. The distribution coefficients of cobalt and nickel between the metallic or sulfidic phase (metal alloy/matte) and the coexisting slag increased with the increasing amount of SBs in the starting mixture. However, with the increasing concentrations of graphite in the starting mixture (from 0.99 wt.% to 3.97 wt.%), the Fe concentration in both metal alloy and matte also increased (from 29 wt.% to 68 wt.% and from 7 wt.% to 49 wt.%, respectively), which may be challenging if further hydrometallurgical treatment is expected. Therefore, the composition of metal alloy/matte must be adjusted depending on the further steps for metal recovery.
Description
Funding Information: Acknowledgments: T.R. thanks the Technology Industries of Finland Centennial Foundation (Steel and Metal Producers Fund) for a doctoral studies scholarship. The authors are grateful Akkuser Oy (Finland) for providing battery scrap. This study utilized the RawMatTERS Finland infrastructure (RAMI, Academy of Finland) in Aalto University, VTT Espoo and GTK Espoo. Funding Information: This research was funded by BATCircle project, grant number 4853/31/2018, BATCircle 2.0 project, grant number 44886/31/2020, and SYMMET project, grant number 3891/31/2018. Acknowledgments: T.R. thanks the Technology Industries of Finland Centennial Foundation (Steel and Metal Producers Fund) for a doctoral studies scholarship. The authors are grateful Akkuser Oy (Finland) for providing battery scrap. This study utilized the RawMatTERS Finland infrastructure (RAMI, Academy of Finland) in Aalto University, VTT Espoo and GTK Espoo. Publisher Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Keywords
Battery recycling, Circular economy, Froth flotation, Pyrometallurgy
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Citation
Danczak, A, Ruismäki, R, Rinne, T, Klemettinen, L, O’Brien, H, Taskinen, P, Jokilaakso, A & Serna‐Guerrero, R 2021, ' Worth from waste: Utilizing a graphite‐rich fraction from spent lithium‐ion batteries as alternative reductant in nickel slag cleaning ', Minerals, vol. 11, no. 7, 784 . https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070784