Fabrication and characterization of GaInNAs quantum structures

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Doctoral thesis (article-based)
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39, [54]
The fabrication and the structural and optical properties of bulk, quantum well, and quantum dot structures prepared of GaAsN and GaInNAs III-V compound semiconductors are studied in this thesis. Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy is used to grow epitaxial layers on GaAs. The composition of the grown structures is investigated by x-ray diffraction. The nitrogen concentration of the GaAsN and GaInNAs layers is found to be strongly dependent on the growth temperature and the molar flow ratios of the different precursors. It is shown that an increase in the indium concentration of GaInNAs results in a decrease of the nitrogen incorporation. Photoluminescence spectroscopy is employed to study the optical properties of the fabricated epitaxial structures. The optical quality of quantum well structures is found to decrease with increasing nitrogen concentration. However, in-situ and post-growth thermal annealing procedures as well as post-growth laser treatment are investigated and used to improve the optical properties. Luminescence wavelengths of up to 1.55 μm are observed from GaInNAs quantum well structures. The effect of nitrogen on the optical properties of various self-assembled quantum dot structures is studied. The surface morphology of these structures is investigated by atomic force microscopy. Although the incorporation of nitrogen into GaIn(N)As quantum dots is found to be negligible, the size and the areal density of the self-organized GaIn(N)As islands can be controlled and the optical properties improved by varying the nitrogen precursor flow. It is found that the luminescence wavelength and intensity of GaInAs quantum dots in the 1.3 μm wavelength range can be increased by embedding the islands in a GaInNAs barrier layer. Also strain-induced GaInNAs quantum dots are fabricated using InP islands as stressors.
semiconductors, GaAsN, GaInNAs, fabrication, structural properties, optical properties, quantum structures
Other note
  • Toivonen J., Hakkarainen T., Sopanen M. and Lipsanen H., 2000. High nitrogen composition GaAsN by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. Journal of Crystal Growth 221, pages 456-460.
  • Hakkarainen T., Toivonen J., Sopanen M. and Lipsanen H., 2001. Self-assembled GaIn(N)As quantum dots: Enhanced luminescence at 1.3 μm. Applied Physics Letters 79, pages 3932-3934.
  • Hakkarainen T., Toivonen J., Sopanen M. and Lipsanen H., 2002. GaInNAs quantum well structures for 1.55 μm emission on GaAs by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Journal of Crystal Growth 234, pages 631-636.
  • Toivonen J., Hakkarainen T., Sopanen M., Lipsanen H., Oila J. and Saarinen K., 2003. Observation of defect complexes containing Ga vacancies in GaAsN. Applied Physics Letters 82, pages 40-42.
  • Hakkarainen T., Toivonen J., Sopanen M. and Lipsanen H., 2003. Wavelength extension of GaInAs / GaIn(N)As quantum dot structures grown on GaAs. Journal of Crystal Growth 248, pages 339-342.
  • Toivonen J., Tuomi T., Riikonen J., Knuuttila L., Hakkarainen T., Sopanen M., Lipsanen H., McNally P. J., Chen W. and Lowney D., Misfit dislocations in GaAsN - GaAs interface. Accepted to Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics.
  • Koskenvaara H., Hakkarainen T., Sopanen M. and Lipsanen H., 2003. Photoluminescence study of strain-induced GaInNAs / GaAs quantum dots. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 14, pages 357-360.
  • Toivonen J., Hakkarainen T., Sopanen M. and Lipsanen H., 2003. Effect of post-growth laser treatment on optical properties of Ga(In)NAs quantum wells. IEE Proceedings - Optoelectronics 150, pages 68-71.
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