Effect of etchant gases on the structure and properties of carbon nanofibers

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Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2024-04
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Language
en
Pages
10
Series
Diamond and Related Materials, Volume 144
Abstract
The utilization of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for carbon nanofiber (CNF) growth using NH3 as the etchant gas has been extensively documented. Notably, NH3 serves a dual role by etching excess carbon and providing N heteroatoms. Most studies neglect to address this phenomenon, despite the well-known impact of N-doping on CNF properties. Furthermore, NH3 exhibits specific interactions with C2H2—it not only etches excess carbon, but also suppresses the dissociation of C2H2. The implications of this phenomenon on CNF micro- and macroscale morphology have not been comprehensively investigated. To elucidate the influence of etchant gases on CNF structure and properties, we fabricated two types of CNFs - N-doped CNFs (N-CNF) and undoped CNFs (U-CNF). Both were grown on identical substrates using the same carbon source (C2H2) but different etchants (NH3 and H2). Their microstructure and surface chemistry were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV). U-CNFs were found to have a larger population density and a more disordered structure than N-CNFs. N-doping was confirmed in N-CNFs using XPS analysis, which also revealed differences in relative amounts of sp2 C and O functional groups. U-CNFs exhibited distinct electrochemical properties, including smaller pseudocapacitance, larger potential window, slower outer sphere redox (OSR) kinetics, and diminished dopamine sensitivity. Electrochemical differences were rationalized based on CNF structure and surface chemistry, which, in turn, were attributed to how different etchant gases influence the PECVD process.
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Publisher Copyright: © 2024 The Authors | openaire: EC/H2020/824070/EU//CONNECT
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Citation
Pande, I, Pascual, L F, Kousar, A, Sainio, J, Jiang, H & Laurila, T 2024, ' Effect of etchant gases on the structure and properties of carbon nanofibers ', Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 144, 111004 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2024.111004