Impacts of rising, peak and receding phases of discharge events on erosion potential of a boreal meandering river

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2022-10
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
26
Series
Hydrological Processes, Volume 36, issue 10
Abstract
Flow features of a meandering river can vary seasonally and widely in the boreal zone, as seasonal variation in discharges affect the properties of meander bends and the spatial location of flow magnitudes. However, a better understanding of the impacts of consecutive high-discharge events in the boreal zone requires further analyses. Thus, the impacts of the fluvial processes and their magnitudes on different types of meander bends (e.g., sinuosity, symmetricity) were analysed throughout an open-channel flow period, using accurate flow measurements and hydrodynamic (two-dimensional) modelling. In particular, the research compared the impacts of different discharge events in magnitude and length of river evolution, and whether there is a difference in the erosion forces of the rising and falling phases of discharge hydrographs, and which of the phases has the greatest relevance to erosion forces. A case study was carried out in a middle boreal zone meandering river (Koitajoki in eastern Finland) during the 2020 open water season from May to October. Five different types of meander bends were considered in the study area. Flow magnitudes and shear forces were at their strongest during the spring flood peak, which is normally considered as the highest flow event during the hydrological year. Exceptionally, the largest summer discharge event reached a level that was close to the spring floods' maximum erosional capabilities. Bed shear stress values indicated the falling phases of the flood hydrographs are more important to river evolution than during the ascent stage, as the long duration of the flood downstage contributes more strongly to meander bend erosion and development. The smaller the curvature and larger the sinuosity of the bends, the more variation in erosional forces occurs between discharge stages. The study provides new insights into seasonal fluvial processes in boreal river meander bends as well as reinforces results from earlier river studies.
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Keywords
boreal meandering river, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), fluvial erosion, hydrodynamic model, open channel flow, rising and falling phases of hydrographs, 3-DIMENSIONAL FLOW STRUCTURE, SEDIMENT TRANSPORT, POINT-BAR, SPATIAL VARIATION, SHEAR-STRESS, MODEL, PROJECTIONS, SIMULATION, VEGETATION, CLIMATE
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Citation
Karkkainen , M & Lotsari , E 2022 , ' Impacts of rising, peak and receding phases of discharge events on erosion potential of a boreal meandering river ' , Hydrological Processes , vol. 36 , no. 10 , 14674 . https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.14674