Radiowave propagation and antennas for high data rate mobile communications in the 60 GHz band

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Doctoral thesis (article-based)
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TKK radio science and engineering publications, Report R, 7
The 60 GHz MIMO systems are seen as some of the best candidates for the implementation of future high data-rate short range communications systems such as wireless personal area networks (WPAN). Although the performance of MIMO systems has been studied thoroughly theoretically and experimentally at lower frequencies like at 2 and 5 GHz, there is a clear lack of measurement data and experimental performance evaluations of MIMO techniques at 60 GHz. Furthermore, more effort is still needed in the design and evaluation of compact low cost 60 GHz antennas for communication applications. In the first part of the thesis, the first 60 GHz MIMO channel measurement system is presented. It is based on a previously developed 2 and 5 GHz sounder and frequency converters. This system uses virtual antenna arrays to create the channel matrix. A measurement campaign is reported. In order to improve the delay resolution, two other MIMO measurement systems are presented, based on an ultra wide band (UWB) sounder and a vector network analyzer (VNA). Those systems allow full characterization of the MIMO channel in the delay and angular domains. In the second part of this work, the performance of multi-antenna techniques is evaluated based on the measurement data obtained in the first part of the thesis. Three of the most promising multi-antenna techniques, namely MIMO, antenna selection MIMO, and beam steering, are analyzed and compared. The presented results indicate that the mutual information of the measured MIMO channel is quite close to that of the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) MIMO Rayleigh channel. Furthermore, in realistic conditions it is seen that MIMO-antenna selection often leads to lower mutual information than traditional MIMO with the same number of RF chains. Moreover, it is shown that when considering phase shifters with realistic losses, MIMO technique almost always outperforms beam steering technique. In the last part of the thesis a 60 GHz planar omnidirectional antenna is presented. This antenna is very suitable for communications applications since it has low profile and uses a metal layer only on one side of the substrate. Therefore, it can be manufactured easily and at very low cost. In addition, an advanced quasi full 3-D radiation pattern measurement system has been developed to evaluate probe-fed antennas. Very good measurement repeatability is reported. The radiation of the probe is analyzed and is seen to be the main limitation of the dynamic range of the measurement setup.
MIMO channels, millimeter wave measurements, antennas, communications
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  • [Publication 1]: Sylvain Ranvier, Jarmo Kivinen, and Pertti Vainikainen. 2007. Millimeter-wave MIMO radio channel sounder. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, volume 56, number 3, pages 1018-1024. © 2007 IEEE. By permission.
  • [Publication 2]: S. Ranvier, M. Kmec, R. Herrmann, J. Kivinen, J. Koivunen, R. S. Thomä, and P. Vainikainen. 2005. Mm-wave wideband MIMO channel sounding. In: Proceedings of the XXVIIIth General Assembly of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI GA 2005). New Delhi, India. 23-29 October 2005, Paper 01644. © 2005 International Union of Radio Science (URSI). By permission.
  • [Publication 3]: Sylvain Ranvier, Mikko Kyrö, Katsuyuki Haneda, Tuomas Mustonen, Clemens Icheln, and Pertti Vainikainen. 2009. VNA-based wideband 60 GHz MIMO channel sounder with 3-D arrays. In: Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS 2009). San Diego, CA, USA. 18-22 January 2009, pages 308-311. © 2009 IEEE. By permission.
  • [Publication 4]: Sylvain Ranvier, Clemens Icheln, and Pertti Vainikainen. 2009. Measurement-based mutual information analysis of MIMO antenna selection in the 60 GHz band. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, to be published. © 2009 IEEE. By permission.
  • [Publication 5]: Mikko Kyrö, Sylvain Ranvier, and Pertti Vainikainen. 2009. Measurement based mutual information analysis of beam steering in the 60 GHz band. In: Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP 2009). Berlin, Germany. 23-27 March 2009. © 2009 IEEE. By permission.
  • [Publication 6]: Sylvain Ranvier, Sergey Dudorov, Mikko Kyrö, Cyril Luxey, Clemens Icheln, Robert Staraj, and Pertti Vainikainen. 2008. Low-cost planar omnidirectional antenna for mm-wave applications. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, volume 7, pages 521-523. © 2008 IEEE. By permission.
  • [Publication 7]: Sylvain Ranvier, Mikko Kyrö, Clemens Icheln, Cyril Luxey, Robert Staraj, and Pertti Vainikainen. 2009. Compact 3-D on-wafer radiation pattern measurement system for 60 GHz antennas. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, volume 51, number 2, pages 319-324.