A Multiwavelength Study of GRS 1716-249 in Outburst: Constraints on Its System Parameters

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A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
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The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 932, issue 1
We present a detailed study of the evolution of the Galactic black hole transient GRS 1716-249 during its 2016-2017 outburst at optical (Las Cumbres Observatory), mid-infrared (Very Large Telescope), near-infrared (Rapid Eye Mount telescope), and ultraviolet (the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope) wavelengths, along with archival radio and X-ray data. We show that the optical/near-infrared and UV emission of the source mainly originates from a multi-temperature accretion disk, while the mid-infrared and radio emission are dominated by synchrotron emission from a compact jet. The optical/UV flux density is correlated with the X-ray emission when the source is in the hard state, consistent with an X-ray irradiated accretion disk with an additional contribution from the viscous disk during the outburst fade. We find evidence for a weak, but highly variable jet component at mid-infrared wavelengths. We also report the long-term optical light curve of the source and find that the quiescent i′ -band magnitude is 21.39 ± 0.15 mag. Furthermore, we discuss how previous estimates of the system parameters of the source are based on various incorrect assumptions, and so are likely to be inaccurate. By comparing our GRS 1716-249 data set to those of other outbursting black hole X-ray binaries, we find that while GRS 1716-249 shows similar X-ray behavior, it is noticeably optically fainter, if the literature distance of 2.4 kpc is adopted. Using several lines of reasoning, we argue that the source distance is further than previously assumed in the literature, likely within 4-17 kpc, with a most likely range of ∼4-8 kpc.
Funding Information: The authors thank the anonymous referee for useful comments and suggestions. The authors also thank Lian Tao for the revised black hole mass estimation using the updated distance. D.M.R. and D.M.B. acknowledge the support of the NYU Abu Dhabi Research Enhancement Fund under grant RE124. J.J. acknowledges the support of the Leverhulme Trust, the Isaac Newton Trust, and St. Edmund’s college, University of Cambridge. R.S. acknowledges grant No. 12073029 from the Natural National Science Foundation of China (NSFC). S.M. is thankful for support by Dutch Research Council (NWO) VICI award, grant Nr. 639.043.513. T.M.B. acknowledges financial contribution from the agreement ASI- INAF n.2017-14-H.0 and from PRIN-INAF 2019 N.15. T.D.R. acknowledges financial contribution from the agreement ASI-INAF n.2017-14-H.0. T.S. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MICIU) under grant PID2020-114822GB-I00. G.R.S. is supported by NSERC Discovery Grants RGPIN-2016-06569 and RGPIN-2021-0400. K.I.I.K. acknowledges funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No. 101002352) and from the Academy of Finland projects 320045 and 320085. This work uses data from the Faulkes Telescope Project, which is an education partner of Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO). The Faulkes Telescopes are maintained and operated by LCO. This work also uses observations made with the REM Telescope, INAF Chile. It is also based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programmes 098.D-0893 and 099.D-0884 (PI: D. Russell). Support for this work was provided by NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51494.001 awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555. This work also makes use of data supplied by the UK Swift Science Data Centre at the University of Leicester, and the MAXI data provided by RIKEN, JAXA, and the MAXI team. Publisher Copyright: © 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.
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Saikia, P, Russell, D M, Baglio, M C, Bramich, D M, Casella, P, Trigo, M D, Gandhi, P, Jiang, J, Maccarone, T, Soria, R, Al Noori, H, Al Yazeedi, A, Alabarta, K, Belloni, T, Bel, M C, Ceccobello, C, Corbel, S, Fender, R, Gallo, E, Homan, J, Koljonen, K, Lewis, F, Markoff, S B, Miller-Jones, J C A, Rodriguez, J, Russell, T D, Shahbaz, T, Sivakoff, G R, Testa, V & Tetarenko, A J 2022, ' A Multiwavelength Study of GRS 1716-249 in Outburst : Constraints on Its System Parameters ', The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 932, no. 1, 38 . https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ac6ce1