Modelling Charring and Burning of Spruce and Pine Woods During Pyrolysis, Smoldering and Flaming

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2023-09
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
36
2751-2786
Series
Fire Technology, Volume 59, issue 5
Abstract
The goal of this work is to develop a material model for Norway spruce and Scots pine woods for use in performance-based fire safety design to predict char front progress and heat release in burning timber. For both woods a set of two different models is estimated: one that assumes wood as a single component and another that considers the pyrolysis of wood principal components independently (single and parallel reactions models, respectively). The material models are calibrated using cone calorimeter experiments. The models are intended for a number of different fire scenarios, such as fully developed fire with only little oxygen in the compartment, or the decay period after flaming with exposed char still smoldering. For both spruce and pine, the single and parallel reactions models are able to predict the experiments in the scale of cone calorimeter with near-equal accuracy. Hence, the single reaction model emerges as the preferable level of complexity when modelling charring and heat release, avoiding the increased uncertainty associated with the additional parameters of the parallel reactions model. When scaling up to the simulations of large scale fire tests, the models can predict the char front progress, but the final temperature profile differs from the experimental. The effects of crack forming in the char layer is one of the likely causes, but its mechanisms are not sufficiently known. Therefore, we suggest a closer study on crack formation in wood under fire as future research.
Description
Funding Information: The authors wish to thank Professor Ari Jokilaakso in arranging us the possibility to conduct the laser flash analysis experiments, D.Sc. Anna Antonova for assistance in taking scanning electron microscope images, and D.Sc. Esko Mikkola for providing us with the fire test data from VTT Expert Services. The work has been funded by the Academy of Finland under grant 297030 and by the Fire Protection Fund, Finland under Grant VN/14174/2021. This study utilized the Academy of Finland’s RawMatTERS Finland Infrastructure (RAMI) based at Aalto University, GTK Espoo, and VTT Espoo. The authors wish to acknowledge CSC – IT Center for Science, Finland, for computational resources. Publisher Copyright: © 2023, The Author(s).
Keywords
Charring, Cone calorimeter, Pine wood, Pyrolysis, Smoldering, Spruce wood
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Citation
Rinta-Paavola , A , Sukhomlinov , D & Hostikka , S 2023 , ' Modelling Charring and Burning of Spruce and Pine Woods During Pyrolysis, Smoldering and Flaming ' , Fire Technology , vol. 59 , no. 5 , pp. 2751-2786 . https://doi.org/10.1007/s10694-023-01458-9