Implications for planning smart parking schemes in Espoo
Insinööritieteiden korkeakoulu | Master's thesis
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Managing Spatial Change, Urban Engineering
Master's Programme in Transportation and Environmental Engineering
AbstractThe Helsinki Metropolitan Area faces a significant urbanisation challenge with the population and number of jobs in the region expected to double by 2050. So that the transport network can cope with the increased pressures that urbanisation brings, there is effort to improve sustainability and efficiency of transport within the region. A dynamic parking scheme may help to stimulate development and encourage a move to more sustainable transport modes. This research proposed a dynamic parking scheme for the urban area of Leppävaara, in which the tariff changes according to temporal and geographical variables, and investigated how such a scheme may impact travel behaviour for different purposes. The research was composed of four parts, a review of existing literature on the subject, interviews with field experts, an analysis of parking in Leppävaara and a survey to ascertain public opinion of the proposed scheme. Previous research indicates that parking fees can be politically difficult to implement but that they can be very effective in encouraging more sustainable transportation. Smart parking technologies have shown that enforcement and collection of parking fees can be made easier and cheaper. Field experts admit that parking demands can be a barrier to development and that parking fees are in principle a good idea for reasons of equality and sustainability. In the study area of Leppävaara, there are about 1.2 residential parking spaces for each car and about 0.25 commercial parking spaces per employee. Taking modal shares into account this would indicate that for residents and employees, there are sufficient amounts of off-street parking spaces, meaning that on-street parking spaces could be used in the main by visitors to Leppävaara. The survey revealed that the majority are opposed to parking fees although a notable proportion believed a small parking fee to be reasonable. If parking fees were implemented on all parking spaces, many people who visit Leppävaara for shopping purposes would go elsewhere to avoid fees. People visiting Leppävaara for work purposes would not change their behaviour so significantly because the employer would pay for travel expenses. Many visiting for social reasons would change to a different transport mode instead of the car. A parking control scheme should involve all parking spaces, both private and public, within the urban area. The cooperation required for such a scheme is very challenging however, considering the number of stakeholders and differing interests involved.
Thesis advisorNyberg, Johanna
smart parking, dynamic parking fees, urban transport planning, co-design