System and circuit design for a capacitive MEMS gyroscope

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Doctoral thesis (monograph)
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Verkkokirja (2648 KB, 229,[19] s.)
TKK dissertations, 116
In this thesis, issues related to the design and implementation of a micro-electro-mechanicalangular velocity sensor are studied. The work focuses on a system basedon a vibratory microgyroscope which operates in the low-pass mode with a moderateresonance gain and with an open-loop configuration of the secondary (sense) resonator.Both the primary (drive) and the secondary resonators are assumed to have a high qualityfactor. Furthermore, the gyroscope employs electrostatic excitation and capacitivedetection. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part provides the background informationnecessary for the other two parts. The basic properties of a vibratory microgyroscope,together with the most fundamental non-idealities, are described, a shortintroduction to various manufacturing technologies is given, and a brief review of publishedmicrogyroscopes and of commercial microgyroscopes is provided. The second part concentrates on selected aspects of the system-level design of amicro-electro-mechanical angular velocity sensor. In this part, a detailed analysis isprovided of issues related to different non-idealities in the synchronous demodulation,the dynamics of the primary resonator excitation, the compensation of the mechanicalquadrature signal, and the zero-rate output. The use of ΣΔ modulation to improveaccuracy in both primary resonator excitation and the compensation of the mechanicalquadrature signal is studied. The third part concentrates on the design and implementation of the integratedelectronics required by the angular velocity sensor. The focus is primarily on the designof the sensor readout circuitry, comprising: a continuous-time front-end performingthe capacitance-to-voltage (C/V) conversion, filtering, and signal level normalization;a bandpass ΣΔ analog-to-digital converter, and the required digital signal processing(DSP). The other fundamental circuit blocks, which are a phase-locked loop requiredfor clock generation, a high-voltage digital-to-analog converter for the compensationof the mechanical quadrature signal, the necessary charge pumps for the generationof high voltages, an analog phase shifter, and the digital-to-analog converter used togenerate the primary resonator excitation signals, together with other DSP blocks, areintroduced on a more general level. Additionally, alternative ways to perform the C/Vconversion, such as continuous-time front ends either with or without the upconversionof the capacitive signal, various switched-capacitor front ends, and electromechanicalΣΔ modulation, are studied. In the experimental work done for the thesis, a prototype of a micro-electro-mechanicalangular velocity sensor is implemented and characterized. The analog partsof the system are implemented with a 0.7-µm high-voltage CMOS (ComplimentaryMetal-Oxide-Semiconductor) technology. The DSP part is realized with a field-programmablegate array (FPGA) chip. The ±100°/s gyroscope achieves 0.042°/s/√H̅z̅spot noise and a signal-to-noise ratio of 51.6 dB over the 40 Hz bandwidth, with a100°/s input signal. The implemented system demonstrates the use of ΣΔ modulation in both the primaryresonator excitation and the quadrature compensation. Additionally, it demonstratesphase error compensation performed using DSP. With phase error compensation,the effect of several phase delays in the analog circuitry can be eliminated, andthe additional noise caused by clock jitter can be considerably reduced.
angular velocity sensors, capacitive sensor readout, capacitive sensors, electrostatic excitation, gyroscopes, high-voltage design, integrated circuits, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), microsystems
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