Multi-band 5G Antenna Designs for Smartphones

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
School of Electrical Engineering | Doctoral thesis (article-based) | Defence date: 2024-01-19
Date
2024
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
79 + app. 68
Series
Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL THESES, 11/2024
Abstract
In the pursuit of increasing data transmission rates, mobile communications have rapidly evolved into the 5G era. With more and more frequency bands being specified and utilized, one of the longstanding challenges in mobile phone antenna design has been to cover multiple communication bands within the limited internal space of a phone. The introduction of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) technology and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) technology, together with the attractive visual appearance of handsets, has presented new challenges for mobile phone antenna design. The first part of this thesis concentrates on frequency-reconfigurable antennas, specifically utilizing lumped components. A full metal-rimmed model serves as a basis in the antenna designs covering hepta-band of 4G and C-band of 5G. A decoupling method of 5G MIMO antennas is also proposed based on the current suppression in a ring slot. Subsequent designs in this part focus on the frequency-reconfigurable antennas in the mm-wave frequency band. Required capacitance is first studied in the frequency band from 24 to 43.5 GHz, and practical antenna design is then implemented with commercially available tunable components, covering a frequency band from 23.2-30.2 GHz with total efficiency larger than -2.5 dB. A novel cluster array concept is introduced in the second part for frequency tunability through the adjustment of feeding weights. Realized gains of antenna arrays are maximized using eigenvalues of electric-field results. The proposed approach can be applied to various antenna designs to improve the spherical coverage in a wide frequency range. For instance, diverse patch and dipole elements, which can be seen as multiple-resonance circuits, are employed to illustrate this concept. The third part presents a dual-polarized end-fire antenna array as a supplement to broadside antennas achieving full spherical coverage required for the 5G mm-wave applications. Multiple resonant modes are generated through the use of a novel stacked antenna with a low profile for vertical polarization. The overlapped bandwidth of the vertical polarization and horizontal polarization ranges from 24 to 43.5 GHz. The methods developed in this thesis achieve the multiple frequency bands for 5G mobile communications. This work contributes to the antenna designs for modern smartphones, incorporating the research between practical applicability and innovative approaches.
Description
Supervising professor
Viikari, Ville, Prof., Aalto University, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Finland
Thesis advisor
Lehtovuori, Anu, Dr., Aalto University, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Finland
Ala-Laurinaho, Juha, Dr., Aalto University, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Finland
Keywords
5G, beamforming, frequency-reconfigurable, mobile phone antennas, millimeter-wave, Sub-6 GHz
Other note
Parts
  • [Publication 1]: Q. Chen, H. Lin, J. Wang, L. Ge, Y. Li, T. Pei, and C. Sim, “Single Ring Slot-Based Antennas for Metal-Rimmed 4G/5G Smartphones,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 1476-1487, March 2019.
    DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2883686 View at publisher
  • [Publication 2]: Q. Chen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, A. Khripkov, J. Ilvonen, R. M. Moreno, and V. Viikari, “Dual-polarized Patch Antenna of Large Frequency Tuning Range at mm-Wave Frequency Bands,” In IEEE European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Florence, Italy, pp. 1-3, March 2023.
    DOI: 10.23919/EuCAP57121.2023.10133378 View at publisher
  • [Publication 3]: Q. Chen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, A. Khripkov, J. Ilvonen, R. M. Moreno, and V. Viikari, “Varactor-based Frequency-reconfigurable Dual-polarized mm-Wave Antenna Array for Mobile Devices,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 71, no. 8, pp. 6628-6638, August 2023.
    DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2023.3287679 View at publisher
  • [Publication 4]: Q. Chen, V.-P. Kutinlahti, J. Haarla, A. Lehtovuori, and V. Viikari, “Coupled Array of Diverse Elements for Wideband High Spherical Coverage,” IEEE Open Journal of Antenna and Propagation, vol. 4, pp. 815-823, August 2023.
    DOI: 10.1109/OJAP.2023.3303929 View at publisher
  • [Publication 5]: Q. Chen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, A. Khripkov, J. Ilvonen, R. M. Moreno, and V. Viikari, “Connected Dipole Antenna Cluster of Enhanced Spherical Coverage CDF for mm-Wave Applications,” In IEEE International Workshop on Antenna Technology, Aalborg, Denmark, pp. 1-4, May 2023.
    DOI: 10.1109/iWAT57058.2023.10171752 View at publisher
  • [Publication 6]: Q. Chen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, A. Khripkov, J. Ilvonen, R. M. Moreno, and V. Viikari, “A Wideband Dual-polarized End-fire Antenna Array for 5G mm-Wave Smartphones,” Accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, pp. 1-10, December 2023.
    DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2023.3342620 View at publisher
Citation