Efficient energy solution for buildings: Leveraging long-term heat storage for optimal operation and cost savings

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Sähkötekniikan korkeakoulu | Master's thesis
Date
2023-12-11
Department
Major/Subject
Energy Systems and Markets
Mcode
ELEC3048
Degree programme
Master's Programme in Advanced Energy Solutions
Language
en
Pages
64+3
Series
Abstract
As of 2020, Residential heating accounted for a substantial 39 TWh of energy consumption in Finland, primarily sourced from district heat, wood, and electricity, constituting 82% of heating sources. Despite the vital role of indoor heating in addressing weather challenges and high heating demands, its reliance on fossil fuels poses significant obstacles. Amid the transition towards sustainable energy, Thermal Energy Storage (TES) emerges as pivotal for improving energy efficiency. Recently phase change materials (PCM), particularly cold-crystallizing materials (CCM), have gained attention as a potential long-term heat storage solution. CCM, composed of erythritol within a polymer matrix, exhibits the capability to store heat for the long term without efficiency loss. This material achieves heat storage by cooling to a deeply supercooled state and releases stored energy through cold crystallization, making it a promising candidate for a scalable and efficient energy storage medium. This thesis aims to optimize electricity consumption costs for a year by strategically charging and discharging during low-price periods and discharging during power price variations. This study utilizes a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model considering three storage units based on CCM. The findings showcase potential cost reductions of 2.58%, 4.74%, and 5.89% with one, two, and three storage units, respectively, compared to a non-storage system. Current research highlights the potential possibility of CCM-based storage as a means of reducing power consumption costs and promoting energy efficiency. However, additional research and experimentation are necessary to validate these findings and address the limitations of this approach.
Description
Supervisor
Keppo, Ilkka
Thesis advisor
Laukkanen, Timo
Talebjedi, Behnam
Keywords
long-term TES, cold crystallizing materials, MILP model, economic analysis, TES
Other note
Citation