The job crafting patterns of job-oriented employees in Vietnam
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School of Business | Master's thesis
Management and International Business (MIB)
100 + 12
AbstractTraditionally, researchers propose that the experience of an employee is decided by the job characteristics designed by managers. However, novel literature puts more emphasis on the role of the employees in creating their own experience at work despite the static working conditions. In light of this, job crafting literature focuses on the way employees redesign their tasks and relationships to have meaningful experience with their job. Besides, although the labor force nowadays is aiming to achieve meaningfulness at work, there are still certain individuals with job orientation who have to struggle with their job to live through days at work to make a living. This situation is especially typical in Vietnam due to its distinctive social context. With the hope to investigate the experience of work of the employees of this type, the aim of this study is to examine the ways they craft their job, introducing changes to their work to reduce the intensity of their tasks and to increase the meaning of their occupation. The focus of this thesis is on the effects of job orientation on job crafting behaviors with the scope of the Vietnamese context. This thesis presents a qualitative study which was carried out based on interviews with eight Vietnamese incumbents having job orientation. Adopting the methodology of phenomenological inquiry, the analysis revealed textures of the experience in terms of crafting behaviors, and structures of the experience in terms of the contexts and setting leading to certain actions. The textures and structures of the experience were analyzed based on the conceptual framework. The literature on job crafting (Berg et al.; 2013; Tims et al., 2012; Tims & Bakker, 2010; Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001), work relation (Wrzesniewski et al., 1997) and motivational orientation (Amabile et al., 1994; Deci & Ryan, 1985) was synthesized to build a conceptual framework demonstrating the interaction among job orientation, job crafting antecedents, and job crafting behaviors. The findings of this thesis are two-fold. First, all participants showed crafting behaviors to increase structural and relational job resources and decrease hindering job demands. Second, they expressed similar ways of perceiving their working environment (controlling, dependent and interdependent), demonstrated similar individual characteristics (extrinsic orientation, inactive personality, low self-efficacy, and high prevention focus), and had certain problems at work (person-job misfit and unmet basic needs). These factors lead to particular crafting patterns previously mentioned. Additionally, the results suggest that leadership and working environment play an important role to facilitate intrinsic motivation and enhance meaningful crafting techniques. In light of this, this thesis proposes a connection between job orientation and job crafting behaviors and addresses the facilitating role of leadership and working environment. As job crafting and work relations are novel literature, the importance of the findings of this thesis was presented in the practical and theoretical implications. Avenues for further research related to this topic were proposed to examine specific factors of the conceptual framework and their interaction and to explore unaddressed aspects of the findings.
Thesis advisorMoisander, Johanna
job crafting, job orientation, work relation, job redesign