Microstructural and mechanical characterization of Cu/Sn SLID bonding utilizing Co as contact metallization layer

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2022-12-25
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
12
Series
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 929
Abstract
Most micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices contain fragile moving parts, which poses challenges in process integration of interconnection methods requiring wet-chemistry, such as solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding (SLID). These sensitive MEMS structures can be protected from either the wet-chemistry or plated metals during chemical/electro-chemical plating of SLID interconnection materials; however, this is a complex process. Hence, our previous research has investigated employing a physically deposited contact metallization on the wafers containing functional devices instead of chemically deposited layers (such as electrochemical Cu). Co is a plausible contact metallization layer for Cu-Sn SLID bonding, as it is chemically compatible with Cu–Sn systems. Furthermore, it can positively impact the mechanical reliability of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) due to the stabilizing of the HT-hexagonal Cu6Sn5 phase down to room temperature and suppressing the Cu3Sn phase formation and subsequent void formation. However, it is critical to control Co thickness to achieve a stable bond based on our previous research on Co bulk in contact with Cu-Sn electroplated silicon chips. To utilize Co as a contact metallization layer for wafer-level Cu-Sn SLID bonding, it is necessary to define appropriate metal layers in the contact metallization stack. Consequently, the present study investigated four different contact metallization stacks including A) 40nmTi/100 nm Co, B) 40 nm Ti/200 nm Mo/100 nm Co, C) 40 nm Ti/500 nm Co, and D) 40 nm Ti/200 nm Mo/500 nm Co. More specifically, we evaluated the microstructural formation and evolution and mechanical performance of the joints. Our study revealed that the Ti/Mo/100 nm Co contact metallization stack for (4 µm)Cu/(2 µm)Sn SLID bonding is composed of IMCs (Cu,2.5at%Co)6Sn5 and Cu3Sn without remaining Sn. Moreover, the joint contained a negligible number of voids even after long-time annealing at 150 °C. Our analysis of the mechanical properties of the joint showed that 1) the tensile fracture surface exhibited a mixture of ductile and brittle fractures, and 2) the Young's modulus of (Cu,2.5at%Co)6Sn5 was higher than Cu6Sn5, while hardness of (Cu,2.5at%Co)6Sn5 and Cu6Sn5 were comparable. By employing a Ti/Mo/100 nm Co contact metallization stack, the current study was able to produce 25 µm and 10 µm void free (4 µm Cu/2 µm Sn) microbumps.
Description
Funding Information: We acknowledge the provision of facilities and technical support by Aalto University at OtaNano-Nanomicroscopy Center (Aalto- NMC). Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s)
Keywords
3D integration, Cu-Co-Sn system, Cu-Sn SLID bonding, Microstructural evolution, TLP bonding, Wafer-level bonding
Other note
Citation
Emadi, F, Vuorinen, V, Mertin, S, Widell, K & Paulasto-Kröckel, M 2022, ' Microstructural and mechanical characterization of Cu/Sn SLID bonding utilizing Co as contact metallization layer ', Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 929, 167228 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2022.167228