Simulation of demand response on buildings and district heating production
E3S Web of Conferences, Volume 362
AbstractDemand response (DR) has effectively maximized renewable energies integrated into energy supply systems. This paper investigated DR benefits on three building types and the district heating (DH) production of a community consisted by these buildings in German conditions. Firstly, the buildings and the DH production were simulated without DR by tools IDA-ICE and HGSO, separately. Secondly, the three buildings were simulated by a rule-based DR control. After that, the tool HGSO calculated the total production costs and CO2 emissions based on the power demand with DR. The results show 2.8%-4.8% heating cost savings by DR for different building types. For DH producers, DR application reduces the total DH demand and CO2 emissions by 3.8% and 32.3 %, respectively.
| openaire: EC/HE/894511/EU//SUREFIT | openaire: EC/HE/856602/EU//FINEST TWINS Funding Information: The aim of this study is to identify the economic and environmental effects of the application of DR on both buildings and DH production. It was executed in the form of a co-simulation combined building simulation by IDA ICE and the optimization tool HGSO for energy production and price signal calculation. The results about the benefits of DR were shown below: For building owners, DR application cuts heat energy costs. Cost-savings are from 2.8%– 4.8% for different building types. The cost-saving rate of the simulated office building is the highest among the three building type cases. For the DH producers, the large-scale DR application increases 5.9% of generation profits and decreases the total DH demand and CO2 emissions by 3.8% and 32.3%, separately. The building-level results are relevant to the certain building types in this study with similar climate conditions and price characteristics of the studiedDH production scenario. However, the DR control algorithm employed in this study is general, which could be adopted in any building type in different climate conditions and with different prices. In addition, although the production-level simulation results are typical of the studied DH production scenario, the methodology of DH production analysis is applicable for all production combinations. Building-level results indicate that DR control for space heating could effectively save DH energy costs, which could be an incentive for building owners to take action towards becoming more environmentally friendly. The large-scale application of DR could become economically and ecologically profitable for DH producers. The all reflect the benefits of DR utilization in DH systems. Acknowledgement This study is part of the Smart Pro HeaT – Smart Prosumer Heating Technologies, SUREFIT and FINEST Twins projects. Smart Proheat project is funded by Business Finland and private companies Caverion Ltd., Fourdeg Ltd., HaltonLtd., and Aalto University as well as the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy of Germany in the project; EnEff: Wärme SmartProHeaT: Smart Prosumer Heating Technologies, Subproject: Integration of smart prosumers into smart thermal grids (Project number: 03ET1598). SUREFIT project is funded by European Union (Horizon 2020 programme, Grant number: 894511). FINEST Twins project is funded by European Union (Horizon 2020 programme, Grant No. 856602) and the Estonian government. Authors would like to thank the steering group of Smart Proheat project: M. Sc. Olli Nummelin and M. Sc. Nelli Melolinna from Caverion Ltd., M. Sc. Markku Makkonen from Fourdeg Ltd. and Dr. Panu Mustakallio from Halton Ltd. and the colleagues from University of Applied Sciences Hamburg: M.Sc. Jan Trosdorff for support and fruitful discussions. R ferences Ala-Kotila, P., Vainio, T. & Heinonen, J. (2020). Demand Response in District Heating Market— esults of the Field Tests in Student Apartment Buildings. Smart itiesC 3 (2), 157– 171. Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.
Ju , Y , Lindholm , J , Verbeck , M , Jokisalo , J , Kosonen , R , Janßenc , P , Li , Y , Schäfers , H & Nord , N 2022 , ' Simulation of demand response on buildings and district heating production ' , E3S Web of Conferences , vol. 362 , 13002 . https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202236213002