Demand response in the German district heating system

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IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 1185, issue 1
The renewable energy share in energy supply systems is increasing for carbon neutrality. The realization of carbon neutrality can be supported by demand response (DR) strategies. This paper analyzed the DR control benefits of a German district heating (DH) system. For the first step, in German conditions, three building types were simulated by IDA-ICE software with and without a rule-based DR control. Secondly, a community was established based on the heat demand of the simulated buildings. This paper selected two different production scenarios. One scenario consisted by a biofuel CHP and gas boilers and the other one included a heat pump, an electric heater, and a solar thermal storage. After that, the production of the two scenarios with and without DR was optimized by the HGSO tool and it calculated the total production costs and CO2 emissions. It indicates that building owners and DH producers all earn benefits from the application of demand response. The maximum heating cost saving by DR is 4.9% for building owners. In the optimized two production scenarios, DH producers gain higher financial benefits and there are less CO2 emissions. The maximum total generation cost and CO2 emission savings are 12.6% and 8.6%, respectively.
| openaire: EC/H2020/894511/EU//SUREFIT | openaire: EC/H2020/856602/EU//FINEST TWINS Funding Information: This study is part of the Smart Pro HeaT – Smart Prosumer Heating Technologies, SUREFIT and FINEST Twins projects. Smart Proheat project is funded by Business Finland and private companies Caverion Ltd., Fourdeg Ltd., Halton Ltd., and Aalto University as well as the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy of Germany in the project; EnEff: Wärme SmartProHeaT: Smart Prosumer Heating Technologies, Subproject: Integration of smart prosumers into smart thermal grids (Project number: 03ET1598). SUREFIT project is funded by European Union (Horizon 2020 programme, Grant number: 894511). FINEST Twins project is funded by European Union (Horizon 2020 programme, Grant No. 856602) and the Estonian government. Authors would like to thank the steering group of Smart Proheat project: M. Sc. Olli Nummelin and M. Sc. Nelli Melolinna from Caverion Ltd., M. Sc. Markku Makkonen from Fourdeg Ltd. and Dr. Panu Mustakallio from Halton Ltd. and the colleagues from University of Applied Sciences Hamburg: M.Sc. Jan Trosdorff for support and fruitful discussions. Publisher Copyright: © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.
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Ju , Y , Lindholm , J , Verbeck , M , Jokisalo , J , Kosonen , R , Janßenc , P , Li , Y , Schäfers , H & Nord , N 2023 , ' Demand response in the German district heating system ' , IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science , vol. 1185 , no. 1 , 012016 .