Understanding Electromigration in Cu-CNT Composite Interconnects

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2018
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
3884-3892
Series
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Volume 65, issue 9
Abstract
In this paper, we report a hierarchical simulation study of the electromigration (EM) problem in Cu-carbon nanotube (CNT) composite interconnects. This paper is based on the investigation of the activation energy and self-heating temperature using a multiscale electrothermal simulation framework. We first investigate the electrical and thermal properties of Cu-CNT composites, including contact resistances, using the density functional theory and reactive force field approaches, respectively. The corresponding results are employed in macroscopic electrothermal simulations taking into account the self-heating phenomenon. Our simulations show that although Cu atoms have similar activation energies in both bulk Cu and Cu-CNT composites, Cu-CNT composite interconnects are more resistant to EM thanks to the large Lorenz number of the CNTs. Moreover, we found that a large and homogenous conductivity along the transport direction in interconnects is one of the most important design rules to minimize the EM.
Description
Keywords
Conductivity, Contacts, Cu-carbon nanotubes (CNT) composites, density functional theory (DFT), Discrete Fourier transforms, Electromigration, electromigration (EM), electrothermal, interconnects, Lattices, multiscale simulation, Resistance, self-heating., Thermal conductivity
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Citation
Lee , J , Berrada , S , Adamu-Lema , F , Nagy , N , Georgiev , V P , Sadi , T , Liang , J , Ramos , R , Carrillo-Nunez , H , Kalita , D , Lilienthal , K , Wislicenus , M , Pandey , R , Chen , B , Teo , K B K , Goncalves , G , Okuno , H , Uhlig , B , Todri-Sanial , A , Dijon , J & Asenov , A 2018 , ' Understanding Electromigration in Cu-CNT Composite Interconnects : A Multiscale Electrothermal Simulation Study ' , IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices , vol. 65 , no. 9 , pp. 3884-3892 . https://doi.org/10.1109/TED.2018.2853550