Incorporating the transverse profile of the wearing course into the control of the hot in-place recycling of asphalt concrete

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The hot in-place recycling (HIR) of asphalt concrete (AC) is one of the least CO2 emissive reuse techniques. It allows for 100% reuse of material in-situ in the same application, at a reduced need for the material transport to and back from the construction site, as well as the reduced price in comparison with the fresh wearing course overlay. Finland uses the technique predominantly to fill wheel path ruts caused by the studded tire abrasion, to retain structural capacity and prevent hydroplaning. During the HIR process, the aged AC material is heated up in-situ, milled to the approximate depth of 40 mm, blended with fresh AC admixture and rejuvenator. However, the amount of the aged material and the amount of the aged bitumen that undergoes rejuvenation depends on the pavement transverse profile. The rut depth, width and shape determine the minimum volume of admixture necessary for refill during the process in order to retain the structural capacity, as well as the amount of the aged binder requiring rejuvenation. In favor of achieving homogenous rheological properties in the final product, the proportion between the aged binder and the fresh binder should be controlled, as it influences the required amount of rejuvenator. Therefore, the rut cross-sectional area and furthermore, the rut volume is one of the previously unrecognized or ignored major variables of the hot in-place recycling process in Finland that should be incorporated to the HIR process control. This article demonstrates the methodology of incorporating the transverse road profile measurements by 17 vehicle-mounted laser sensors into the calculation of required rejuvenator amounts. This can be done during the procurement preparation phase or during the paving work as a continuous in-situ process control. In the rheological optimization the apparent Newtonian viscosity concept and the rotational viscosity are utilized in the viscosity based blending equation, which then allows the use of oily rejuvenators. The method reduces the need for aged pavement sampling compared with the determination of the calibration curve between rejuvenator concentration and the rheological response. Additionally, the apparent Newtonian viscosity corrects the complex viscosity by the phase angle derived correction factor, opening a previously unexplored opportunity of targeting desired viscoelastic characteristics. The approach is less sensitive to the frequencies and temperatures at which the shear measurements are conducted. This makes proposed calculative method of the desired proportioning of the aged binder, the fresh binder and the rejuvenator a promising tool for the industry. The combined algorithm presented allows for: the discrimination of sites where HIR type maintenance of pavement in question would result in a substandard product; the choice of the most promising material combination of the admixture and rejuvenator, as well as for the adjustment of the admixture and rejuvenator amount in-place.
rut volume, transverse profile, zero shear viscosity, apparent newtonian viscosity
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Makowska , M , Huuskonen-Snicker , E , Alanaatu , P , Aromaa , K , Savarnya , A , Pellinen , T & Das , A 2018 , ' Incorporating the transverse profile of the wearing course into the control of the hot in-place recycling of asphalt concrete ' , IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering , vol. 356 , 012019 .