CMOS Integrated Optics - Studies on Submicron Waveguide Mode Properties and Devices

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School of Electrical Engineering | Doctoral thesis (article-based) | Defence date: 2015-06-05
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Degree programme
68 + app. 46
Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS, 74/2015
The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate novel or improved photonic devices based on the CMOS based photonics processes. Methods to obtain application-specific optical mode characteristics through design, fabrication and post-processing are proposed. Focus is on devices attainable within the capabilities of 130 nm CMOS node tool-set, thereby ensuring manufacturability of photonic devices studied in this thesis. Compared to the widely studied 1D polarization sensitive slot waveguides, we demonstrate novel designs for 2D slot waveguides with high confinement for both polarizations of the fundamental optical mode (quasi-TE and quasi-TM). It is shown that on the basis of required optical mode characteristics such as effective index, birefringence, confinement and mode overlap; cross-slot waveguide, closed 2D slot waveguide, open 2D slot waveguide or u-slot waveguide can be used. It is also shown that angled sidewall in vertical slot waveguide aides void-less filling of the narrow vertical slot waveguide and enhances interaction with the non-linear slot. Asymmetric vertical slot waveguides to achieve non-reciprocal phase shift are also discussed. Furthermore, unprecedented reduction of optical propagation loss is demonstrated for the shorter wavelength regime (980 nm) in the CMOS based silicon nitride material system. This is realized through CMOS compatible ALD based wafer-scale post-processing technique.
Supervising professor
Lipsanen, Harri, Prof., Aalto University, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Finland
Honkanen, Seppo, Prof., University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Photonics, Finland
Thesis advisor
Säynätjoki, Antti, Dr., Aalto University, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Finland
integrated optics, photonics, waveguide, nanophotonics, silicon photonics, CMOS photonics, waveguides, slot waveguide
Other note
  • [Publication 1]: Khanna Amit, Säynätjoki Antti, Tervonen Ari, Honkanen Seppo. Control of Optical Mode Properties in Cross-slot Waveguides. Applied Optics, Volume 48, Number 34, pages 6547-6552, December 2009.
    DOI: 10.1364/AO.48.006547 View at publisher
  • [Publication 2]: Khanna Amit, Säynätjoki Antti, Tervonen Ari, Norwood Robert A., Honkanen Seppo. Polarization Properties of Two-Dimensional Slot Waveguides. Applied Optics, Volume 49, Number 28, pages 5321-5332, October 2010.
    DOI: 10.1364/AO.49.005321 View at publisher
  • [Publication 3]: Säynätjoki Antti, Alasaarela Tapani, Khanna Amit, Karvonen Lasse, Stenberg Petri, Kuittinen Markku, Tervonen Ari, Honkanen Seppo. Angled Sidewalls in Slot Waveguides: Conformal Filling and Mode Properties. Optics Express, Volume 17, Issue 23, pages 21066-21076, October 2009.
    DOI: 10.1364/OE.17.021066 View at publisher
  • [Publication 4]: Tervonen Ari, Khanna Amit, Säynätjoki Antti, Honkanen Seppo. Modeling Study of Non-reciprocal Phase Shift in Magneto-optic Asymmetric Slot Waveguides. Journal of Lightwave Technology, Volume 29, Number 5, pages 656-660, March 2011.
    DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2011.2107032 View at publisher
  • [Publication 5]: Khanna Amit, Subramanian Ananth Z, Häyrinen Markus, Selvaraja Shankar, Verheyen Peter, Thourhout Dries Van, Honkanen Seppo, Lipsanen Harri, Baets Roel. Impact of ALD grown passivation layers on silicon nitride based integrated optic devices for very-nearinfrared wavelengths. Optics Express, Volume 22, Number 5, pages 5684-5692, March 2014.
    DOI: 10.1364/OE.22.005684 View at publisher