Self-Standing Lignin-Containing Willow Bark Nanocellulose Films for Oxygen Blocking and UV Shielding

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2021-03-26
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
2921–2929
Series
ACS Applied Nano Materials, Volume 4, issue 3
Abstract
Developing the bio-based barrier material to substitute the petroleum-based one is the trend in functional packaging applications. Utilization of the abundantly underappreciated bark biomass is attractive from the sustainability point of view; however, an upgraded approach is required to maximize the performances of the lignin-containing cellulose nanofibril (LCNF) films from willow bark. Herein, hot water extraction (HWE) and microfluidization were studied for their effect on the yield of LCNF and its film performance after treatment of aqueous p-toluenesulfonic acid. The resultant HWE films were superior to the nontreated ones regarding yield, moisture, and oxygen barrier properties. In particular, the HWE films achieved an oxygen permeability of 3 cm3·μm/m2·kPa·day at 50% relative humidity, which is among the lowest achieved for single bio-based materials and comparable to commercially available synthetic barrier films. The LCNF films attained complete blocking of UV light transmission within the wavelength range of 290-400 nm. Overall, this study shows that HWE pretreatment not only allows the recovery of high-value extracts, but also significantly improves the yield of LCNF and its barrier performances. The biocompatible, lignin-containing, and self-standing hydrophobic nanocellulose films show promise as a barrier layer against UV radiation and oxygen permeation in food packaging and other applications.
Description
This work made use of the Aalto University Nanomicroscopy Center (Aalto-NMC) premises. The authors thank Ting Guan from Aalto University for her skillful assistance in the initial phase of the experimental development. Appreciation is also extended to Rita Hatakka and Tuyen Nguyen for their assistance with the HPAEC analysis and microfluidizer operation. This work was a part of the Academy of Finland’s Flagship Programme under Projects Nos. 318890 and 318891 (Competence Center for Materials Bioeconomy, FinnCERES). Publisher Copyright: © 2021 American Chemical Society. Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
Keywords
food packaging, lignin-containing, oxygen barrier, ultraviolet, water pretreatment, willow bark
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Citation
Dou , J , Vuorinen , T , Koivula , H , Forsman , N , Sipponen , M & Hietala , S 2021 , ' Self-Standing Lignin-Containing Willow Bark Nanocellulose Films for Oxygen Blocking and UV Shielding ' , ACS Applied Nano Materials , vol. 4 , no. 3 , pp. 2921–2929 . https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.1c00071