Aggregating domestic energy storage resources to participate in frequency containment reserves

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School of Electrical Engineering | Doctoral thesis (article-based) | Defence date: 2019-03-15
Degree programme
105 + app. 83
Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS, 21/2019
The power grid is expected to undergo major transformations due to the increased penetration of renewable variable energy sources and electric vehicles. Uncertainty caused by the volatility of renewable energy production requires the adoption of new measures to maintain the balance between supply and demand, thus guaranteeing the reliability and stability of the grid. These challenges require the active engagement of consumer-side energy production and consumption to provide sufficient flexibility for the power grid through a mechanism known as demand response(DR). This dissertation focuses on DR, and more specifically on enabling residential consumers to participate in the balancing of the grid by providing frequency containment reserves. To provide frequency containment reserves, the dissertation determines the functional and non-functional requirements for using domestic energy storage resources. The functional requirements are identified in two use cases. The first use case defines the requirements for the planning phase of the DR, while the second specifies the requirements for the frequency reserves provision. In addition, non-functional requirements are specified for the developed DR system. The dissertation proposes the design of a DR system for providing frequency containment reserves based on the specified requirements. The design defines a hybrid ICT architecture capable of functioning during both the planning and execution of DR. For DR planning, the dissertation employs a partially distributed optimization algorithm to enable the day-ahead scheduling of consumer-owned energy storage resources. For frequency reserve provision, the dissertation contributes by integrating the proposed ICT architecture with a hybrid coordination algorithm. This auction-based task allocation algorithm enables consumer-owned energy storage resources to be allocated for the provision of frequency containment reserves. The developed DR system is validated through simulations in the two use cases. The dissertation investigates the required market intelligence for enabling a virtual power plant(VPP) to profitably exploit distributed energy resources. In the future, the VPP could exploit its resources on various markets, including frequency containment reserves. In order to bidintelligently on such markets, VPP should be capable of predicting market prices. Therefore, the dissertation focuses on providing a solution for predicting the prices of the frequency containment reserve for normal operation market. The dissertation provides a data-driven solution, analyzing the market prices and providing a methodology for predicting the day-ahead prices through the design and implementation of various machine learning regression models, including an artificial neural network model. The designed models are evaluated by comparing the prediction performance in an experimental setup.
Supervising professor
Vyatkin, Valeriy, Prof., Aalto University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Finland
Thesis advisor
Sierla, Seppo, Dr., Aalto University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Finland
Seilonen, Ilkka, Dr., Aalto University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Finland
demand response, smart grid, ICT architecture, ancillary markets, price prediction
Other note
  • [Publication 1]: Olli Kilkki, Christian Giovanelli, Ilkka Seilonen, Valeriy Vyatkin. Optimization of decentralized energy storage flexibility for frequency reserve. Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015-41st Annual Conference of the IEEE, Yokohama, Japan, 002219–002224, November 2015.
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2015.7392431 View at publisher
  • [Publication 2]: Christian Giovanelli, Olli Kilkki, Ilkka Seilonen, Valeriy Vyatkin. Distributed ICT architecture and an application for optimized automated demand response. PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies ConferenceEurope (ISGT-Europe), 2016 IEEE, Ljubljana, Slovenia, October 2016.
    DOI: 10.1109/ISGTEurope.2016.7856329 View at publisher
  • [Publication 3]: Christian Giovanelli, Olli Kilkki, Antti Alahäivälä, Ilkka Seilonen, Matti Lehtonen, Valeriy Vyatkin. A distributed ICT architecture for continuous frequency control. 6th International Conference on Smart Cities and Green ICT Systems, SMARTGREENS 2017, Porto, Portugal, April 2017.
  • [Publication 4]: Christian Giovanelli, Olli Kilkki, Seppo Sierla, Ilkka Seilonen, Valeriy Vyatkin. Towards a task allocation algorithm for frequency containment reserves. Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on, Emden, Germany, 765–768, July 2017.
    DOI: 10.1109/INDIN.2017.8104868 View at publisher
  • [Publication 5]: Christian Giovanelli, Olli Kilkki, Seppo Sierla, Ilkka Seilonen, Valeriy Vyatkin. Task Allocation Algorithm for Energy Resources Providing Frequency Containment Reserves. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, April 2018.
    DOI: 10.1109/TII.2018.2821676 View at publisher
  • [Publication 6]: Christian Giovanelli, Xin Liu, Seppo Sierla, Valeriy Vyatkin, Ryutaro Ichise. Towards an aggregator that exploits big data to bid on frequency containment reserve market. Industrial Electronics Society, IECON2017-43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE, Beijing, China, 7514–7519, November 2017. Full Text in Acris/Aaltodoc:
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2017.8217316 View at publisher
  • [Publication 7]: Christian Giovanelli, Seppo Sierla, Ryutaro Ichise, Valeriy Vyatkin. Exploiting Artificial Neural Networks for the Prediction of Ancillary Energy Market Prices. Energies, July 2018. Full Text in Acris/Aaltodoc:
    DOI: 10.3390/en11071906 View at publisher