220-240-GHz High-Gain Phase Shifter Chain and Power Amplifier for Scalable Large Phased-Arrays

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2023
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
13
23565 - 23577
Series
IEEE Access, Volume 11
Abstract
This paper focuses on the design aspects of the key components for a scalable phased-array system over the 200 GHz frequency range. A high-gain phase shifter chain for 220 to 240 GHz frequency range and a high-gain power amplifier (PA) with a high output power are designed in a 0.13-&#x03BC;m SiGe BiCMOS technology. The phase shifter chain includes a low-noise amplifier (LNA), a vector modulator phase shifter (PS), and a gain-enhancing amplifier. The LNA is a five-stage cascode design. The vector modulator core is realized by two variable gain amplifiers based on the Gilbert cell architecture. A four-stage cascode design is used for the gain-enhancing amplifier. The phase shifter chain shows a measured gain of 18 dB at 230 GHz with a 360&#x00B0; phase tuning range and more than 10 dB of gain control. The chip achieves a minimum measured noise figure of 11.5 dB at 230 GHz and shows a wideband noise characteristic. The complete phase shifter chain chip consumes a dc power of 153 mW and occupies a 1.41 mm2 area.A high-power PA that is critical for a large phased-array system is designed. This paper presents a unique 4-way power combining technique utilizing a differential quadrature coupler. The realized balanced PA occupies an area of 0.67 mm2 and shows a measured peak gain of 21 dB at 244 GHz. The PA consumes 819 mW of dc power and delivers a maximum saturated output power (<italic>Psat</italic>) of 7.1 dBm at 244 GHz and more than 4.3 dBm of <italic>Psat</italic> from 230 to 255 GHz.
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Publisher Copyright: Author
Keywords
Differential coupler, Gain, gain tuning, low-noise amplifier, millimeter-wave, MMIC, Noise figure, phase shifter, Phase shifters, phased-array, power amplifier, Power amplifiers, Radio frequency, receiver, Receivers, transmitter, Transmitters
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Citation
Najmussadat , M , Ahamed , R , Varonen , M , Parveg , D , Kantanen , M & Halonen , K A I 2023 , ' 220-240-GHz High-Gain Phase Shifter Chain and Power Amplifier for Scalable Large Phased-Arrays ' , IEEE Access , vol. 11 , pp. 23565 - 23577 . https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2023.3253764