Biodegradable Cellulose/Polycaprolactone/Keratin/Calcium Carbonate Mulch Films Prepared in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2023-06
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
18
Series
Polymers, Volume 15, issue 12
Abstract
Ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM][Cl] was used to prepare cellulose (CELL), cellulose/polycaprolactone (CELL/PCL), cellulose/polycaprolactone/keratin (CELL/PCL/KER), and cellulose/polycaprolactone/keratin/ground calcium carbonate (CELL/PCL/KER/GCC) biodegradable mulch films. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) were used to verify the films’ surface chemistry and morphology. Mulch film made of only cellulose regenerated from ionic liquid solution exhibited the highest tensile strength (75.3 ± 2.1 MPa) and modulus of elasticity of 944.4 ± 2.0 MPa. Among samples containing PCL, CELL/PCL/KER/GCC is characterized by the highest tensile strength (15.8 ± 0.4 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (687.5 ± 16.6 MPa). The film’s breaking strain decreased for all samples containing PCL upon the addition of KER and KER/GCC. The melting temperature of pure PCL is 62.3 °C, whereas that of CELL/PCL film has a slight tendency for melting point depression (61.0 °C), which is a characteristic of partially miscible polymer blends. Furthermore, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the addition of KER or KER/GCC to CELL/PCL films resulted in an increment in melting temperature from 61.0 to 62.6 and 68.9 °C and an improvement in sample crystallinity by 2.2 and 3.0 times, respectively. The light transmittance of all studied samples was greater than 60%. The reported method for mulch film preparation is green and recyclable ([BMIM][Cl] can be recovered), and the inclusion of KER derived by extraction from waste chicken feathers enables conversion to organic biofertilizer. The findings of this study contribute to sustainable agriculture by providing nutrients that enhance the growth rate of plants, and hence food production, while reducing environmental pressure. The addition of GCC furthermore provides a source of Ca2+ for plant micronutrition and a supplementary control of soil pH.
Description
Funding Information: This research was supported financially by Omya International AG, Switzerland, Group Sustainability. Publisher Copyright: © 2023 by the authors.
Keywords
biodegradation, calcium carbonate, cellulose, keratin, mulch films, polycaprolactone, waste chicken feathers
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Citation
Stojanović, D, Ivanovska, A, Barać, N, Dimić-Misić, K, Kostić, M, Radojević, V, Janaćković, D, Uskoković, P, Barceló, E & Gane, P 2023, ' Biodegradable Cellulose/Polycaprolactone/Keratin/Calcium Carbonate Mulch Films Prepared in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid ', Polymers, vol. 15, no. 12, 2729 . https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15122729