In situ observations of the atmospheres of terrestrial planetary bodies

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Doctoral thesis (article-based)
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107, [139]
Contribution / Finnish Meteorological Institute, 50
Direct observations of planetary atmospheres are scarce and significantly more data are needed for the understanding of their behavior. The principal theme of this dissertation is the exploration of planetary atmospheres by means of in situ observations, focusing on investigations performed by payloads operating on the planetary surface. The contextual frame includes the whole palette of planetary exploration including definition of scientific objectives, observational strategies, scientific payload and data analysis, as well as development of technological solutions and simulation models for planetary missions. This approach also led to the initiation of the planetary missions MetNet and NetLander to Mars. This work contributes to both in situ atmospheric observations and atmospheric modeling, which are strongly intertwined. Modeling efforts require observations to give solid background and foundation for the simulations, and on the other hand, definition of observational strategies and instrumentation gets guidance from modeling efforts to optimize the use of mission resources, as is successfully demonstrated in this dissertation. The dissertation consists of Summary and nine original scientific publications. Publications 1 to 7 and Summary address the development of new atmospheric science payloads for exploration missions to Mars and Titan, a Saturnian moon. Actual and planned missions included are the Mars-96 Program and its Small Surface Stations and Penetrators during the years 1988-1996, PPI/HASI onboard the Cassini/Huygens spacecraft to Saturn and its moon Titan in 1989-2005, the MET-P payload onboard the Mars Polar Lander in 1997-1999, the BAROBIT instrument for the Beagle 2 lander in 2001-2003, the NetLander Mars Mission in 1997-2001 and the ongoing Mars MetNet Mission, started in 2000. Specifically, Publication 4 reviews the sensor qualification process that facilitated the use of new type of atmospheric sensors at Mars, while Publications 2 and 7, as well as Summary, address the highly successful determination of the Titan atmospheric pressure profile. Publication 8 combines in situ observations and simulations by analyzing Mars Pathfinder measurements with the help of a Martian mesoscale atmospheric model. Finally, in Publication 9 the effect of airborne dust and CO2 on the radiative transfer in the Martian atmosphere is assessed and a new radiative transfer paramerization scheme for the mesoscale model is introduced.
planetary atmospheres, space technology, physics, atmospheric observations, micro sensors
  • Harri, A.-M., O. Marsal, G. W. Leppelmeier, P. Lognonne, K.-H. Glassmeier, F. Angrilli, W. B. Banerdt, J. P. Barriot, J.-L. Bertaux, J. J. Berthelier, S. Calcutt, J. C. Cerisier, D. Crisp, V. Dehant, S. Di Pippo, D. Giardini, D. Guerrier, R. Jaumann, K. Kumpulainen, Y. Langevin, S. Larsen, M. Menvielle, G. Musmann, J. Polkko, J. P. Pommereau, J. Runavot, W. Schumacher, T. Siili, J. Simola and J. E. Tillman. Network science landers for Mars. Advances in Space Research, Vol. 23, No. 11, pp. 1915-24, 1999.
  • Harri, A.-M., B. Fagerström, A. Lehto, G. W. Leppelmeier, T. Mäkinen, R. Pirjola, T. Siikonen and T. Siili. Scientific objectives and implementation of the Pressure Profile Instrument (PPI/HASI) for the Huygens spacecraft. Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 46, No. 9/10, pp. 1383-1392, 1998.
  • Harri, A.-M., V. Linkin, J. Polkko, M. Marov, J.-P. Pommereau, A. Lipatov, T. Siili, K. Manuilov, V. Lebedev, A. Lehto, R. Pellinen, R. Pirjola, T. Carpentier, C. Malique, V. Makarov, L. Khloustova, L. Esposito, J. Maki, G. Lawrence and V. Lystsev. Meteorological observations on Martian surface: met-packages of Mars-96 Small Stations and Penetrators. Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 46, No. 6/7, pp. 779-793, 1998.
  • Harri, A.-M., T. Siili, R. Pirjola and R. Pellinen. Aspects of atmospheric science and instrumentation for Martian missions. Advances in Space Research, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. (6)15-(6)22, 1995.
  • Polkko, J., A.-M. Harri, T. Siili, F. Angrilli, S. Calcutt, D. Crisp, S. Larsen, J.-P. Pommereau, P. Stoppato, A. Lehto, C. Malique and J. E. Tillman. The NetLander atmospheric instrument system (ATMIS): description and performance assessment. Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 48, pp. 1407-1420, 2000.
  • Linkin, V., A.-M. Harri, A. Lipatov, K. Belostotskaja, B. Derbunovich, A. Ekonomov, L. Khloustova, R. Kremnev, V. Makarov, B. Martinov, D. Nenarokov, M. Prostov, A. Pustovalov, G. Shustko, I. Järvinen, H. Kivilinna, S. Korpela, K. Kumpulainen, A. Lehto, R. Pellinen, R. Pirjola, P. Riihelä, A. Salminen, W. Schmidt, T. Siili, J. Blamont, T. Carpentier, A. Debus, C. T. Hua, J.-F. Karczewski, H. Laplace, P. Levacher, Ph. Lognonné, C. Malique, M. Menvielle, G. Mouli, J.-P. Pommereau, K. Quotb, J. Runavot, D. Vienne, F. Grunthaner, F. Kuhnke, G. Musmann, R. Rieder, H. Wänke, T. Economou, M. Herring, A. Lane and C. P. McKay. A sophisticated lander for scientific exploration of Mars: scientific objectives and implementation of the Mars-96 Small Station. Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 46, No. 6/7, pp. 717-737, 1998.
  • Mäkinen, T., A. Lehto, P. Salminen, G. Leppelmeier and A.-M. Harri. PPI results from the balloon drop experiment of the HASI pressure profile instrument. Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 46, No. 9/10, pp. 1237-1243, 1998.
  • Savijärvi, H., A. Määttänen, J. Kauhanen and A.-M. Harri. Mars Pathfinder: new data and new model simulations. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 130, pp. 669-683, 2004.
  • Savijärvi, H., D. Crisp and A.-M. Harri. Effects of CO2 and dust on present-day solar radiation and climate on Mars. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, acccepted for publication.
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