Periodic transmission lines for leaky-wave antenna applications at millimeter wavelengths

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School of Electrical Engineering | Doctoral thesis (article-based) | Defence date: 2014-12-12
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Date
2014
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
72 + app. 80
Series
Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS, 190/2014
Abstract
This thesis focuses on planar leaky-wave antennas based on periodic transmission lines with resonant loads also called metamaterial transmission lines operating at millimeter waves. Planar transmission lines proved to be suitable for metamaterial transmission lines and are here investigated with regard to application as a leaky-wave antenna. Most of them can support backward wave propagation, but the ones with a ground plane provide better directive properties of the final leaky-wave structure. Leaky-wave capability of a microstrip-based periodic transmission line is numerically verified as fit for electronic beam steering applications provided the technological readiness of MEMS technology. Experimental samples, with static MEMS capacitors used as a reactive load, centered at 77 GHz are fabricated in a clean room and measured using a probe station. An alternative to a single antenna scanning system is designed and measured at 94 GHz. The antenna system is based on substrate integrated waveguide which was proved to be suitable and easy to fabricate technology in order to facilitate several antennas positioned next to each other to provide sufficient span of scanning angles. A design method for periodic transmission lines based on planar lines is developed and verified. The most important contribution of this method resides in a linear approach to the design, ease of use, and span of applicability up to millimeter-wave range. The central steps of the design method are pre-compensation of parasitic impedances and periodicity pre-compensation. It is numerically and experimentally verified at 77 and 26 GHz, respectively. It is shown that the leaky-wave antenna designed by this method is capable of providing needed scanning angle range in order to be used in future automotive radar and sensor applications. Eventually a detailed analysis of individual design steps is made resulting into a set of instructions and considerations when designing a periodic leaky-wave antenna or structure based on balanced one-dimensional periodic transmission line.
Description
Supervising professor
Räisänen, Antti, Prof., Aalto University, Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Finland
Thesis advisor
Simovski, Konstantin, Prof., Aalto University, Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Finland
Ala-Laurinaho, Juha, D.Sc. (Tech.), Aalto University, Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Finland
Chicherin, Dmitry, Ph.D., Aalto University, Finland
Keywords
leaky-wave antennas, periodic transmission lines, metamaterials, MEMS, CRLH, design methods
Other note
Parts
  • [Publication 1]: T. Zvolensky, D. Chicherin, A. V. Räisänen, and C. Simovski, “Beam-steering MEMS-loaded antenna based on planar transmission lines,” Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 12-16 Apr. 2010.
  • [Publication 2]: T. Zvolensky, D. Chicherin, A. Räisänen, and C. Simovski, “Leaky-wave regimes on MEMS-loaded transmission lines for mm-wave applications,” Progress in Electromagnetic Research M, vol. 13, pp. 157-171, 2010.
    DOI: 10.2528/PIERM10050605 View at publisher
  • [Publication 3]: T. Zvolensky, D. Chicherin, A. Räisänen, and C. Simovski, “Leaky-wave antenna based on Microelectromechanical systems-loaded microstrip line,” IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propag., vol. 5, pp. 357-363, 2010.
    DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2010.0168 View at publisher
  • [Publication 4]: T. Zvolensky, D. Chicherin, A. Räisänen, C. Simovski, M. Sterner, J. Oberhammer, and H. Hakojärvi, “Leaky-wave antenna at 77 GHz,” Proceedings of the 41st European Microwave Conference, pp. 1039-1042, October 2011.
  • [Publication 5]: D. Zelenchuk, A. J. Martinez, T. Zvolensky, J. L. Gomez, N. Buchanan, G. Goussetis, and V. Fusco, “W-band substrate integrated waveguide technology for scanning antenna architecture,” Journal of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, no. 34, pp. 127-139, January 2013.
    DOI: DOI 10.1007/s10762-013-9960-z View at publisher
  • [Publication 6]: T. Zvolensky, J. Ala-Laurinaho, A. Räisänen, and C. Simovski, “A systematic design method for CRLH periodic structures in the microwave to millimeter-wave range,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 4153-4161, August 2014.
    DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2324562 View at publisher
  • [Publication 7]: T. Zvolensky, J. Ala-Laurinaho, A. Räisänen, and C. Simovski, “Design aspects of finite periodic transmission lines based on planar structures,” Submitted for publication in European Conference on Antennas and Propagation 2015, Lisbon, Portugal, 12-17 April 2015.
Citation