Novel recycling process for lead-acid battery paste without SO2 generation - Reaction mechanism and industrial pilot campaign

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2019-04-20
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
10
162-171
Series
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 217
Abstract
This study proposes an innovative and environment-friendly method for recycling spent lead-acid batteries without SO2 generation. Iron-containing waste was employed as a sulfur-fixing agent to retain sulfur as ferrous matte, which eliminated the generation and emissions of gaseous SO2. This work investigated the thermodynamic and experimental feasibility and conversion mechanism of the method, and evaluated its industrial applicability. A bench-scale test showed direct recoveries of 93.5% and 97.7% in crude lead and ferrous matte for lead and sulfur, respectively. The phase transformation mechanism study indicated that metallic lead from the lead paste was extracted mainly through the sequence of PbSO4 →C/CO PbS →Fe3O4 PbO →C/CO Pb. Sulfur in PbSO4 was thus first transferred to PbS and finally fixed as FeS. An industrial-scale pilot campaign was also conducted to confirm the feasibility and reliability of the new process.
Description
Keywords
Efficient lead extraction, Industrial application evaluation, Reaction mechanism, Reductive sulfur-fixing smelting, SO emission
Other note
Citation
Li, Y, Yang, S, Taskinen, P, He, J, Liao, F, Zhu, R, Chen, Y, Tang, C, Wang, Y & Jokilaakso, A 2019, ' Novel recycling process for lead-acid battery paste without SO 2 generation - Reaction mechanism and industrial pilot campaign ', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 217, pp. 162-171 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.01.197