Optical properties and applications of anisotropic low-dimensional nanomaterials

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School of Electrical Engineering | Doctoral thesis (article-based) | Defence date: 2018-04-06
Degree programme
95 + app. 85
Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS, 51/2018
This thesis focuses on the optical properties and applications of low dimensional anisotropic nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), nanowires (NWs), black phosphorus (BP). The whole thesis can be divided by three main parts. The first part introduces the fabrication methods of various anisotropic nanomaterials. For instance, as-grown CNTs are synthesized and aligned as an array by a mechanical drawing method. As-grown NWs are aligned by a combing method, and our results show that >95% of the NWs are well aligned. Different from CNTs and NWs, BP has the intrinsic anisotropic optical response due to its anisotropic atomic structure. The mechanical exfoliation method for preparation of few-layer BP is presented, which is also applicable for other two-dimensional layered materials. The second part introduces the optical characterization methods of the nanomaterials studied in this thesis. Various polarization-dependent microscopes are introduced to characterize their anisotropic properties, such as polarized absorption/transmission spectroscopy, polarized Raman microscopy, polarization-resolved optical microscopy. These microscopes provide useful methods to verify the anisotropic optical response of these nanomaterials. The third part is the most important one in the thesis, which presents the optical applications of these anisotropic nanomaterials. Firstly, aligned CNTs are used in fiber laser systems to modulate the polarization state of the laser output, which shows excellent performance with the degree of polarization of 89.1% at 1 µm (87.5% at 1.5 µm) for linear polarization modulation. We also demonstrate four-wave mixing based photon-pair generation with CNTs. Secondly, photoluminescence of the combed nanowires is examined to be polarization dependent for multifunctional logic gates. We construct all-optical arithmetic devices with NWs, which provide new means for the realization of all-optical logic gates. Lastly, anisotropic two-dimensional nanomaterials (e.g., BP, ReS2, ReSe2) are studied to demonstrate their waveplate performance. Finally, I summarize the whole contents and give my personal outlook on the study of novel anisotropic nanomaterials to explore their applications in both photonic and optoelectronic fields.
Supervising professor
Sun, Zhipei, Prof., Aalto University, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Finland
anisotropic, polarization, low-dimensional, carbon nanotubes, nanowires, black phosphorus
Other note
  • [Publication 1]: H. Yang, B. Fu, D. Li, Y. Tian, Y. Chen, M. Mattila, Z. Yong. R. Li, A. Hassanien, C. Yang,I. Tittonen, Z. Ren, J. Bai, Q. Li, E. I. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, and Z. Sun. Broadband laser polarization control with aligned carbon nanotubes. Nanoscale, 7, 25, 11199-11205, 2015.
    DOI: 10.1039/C5NR01904D View at publisher
  • [Publication 2]: H. Yang, H. Jussila, A. Autere, H-P. Komsa, G. Ye, X. Chen, T. Hasan, Z. Sun. Optical waveplates based on birefringence of anisotropic twodimensional layered materials. ACS Photonics, 4, 12, 3023-3030, 2017.
    DOI: 10.1021/acsphotonics.7b00507 View at publisher
  • [Publication 3]: H. Yang, V. Khayrudinov, V. Dhaka, H. Jiang, A. Autere, H. Lipsanen, Z. Sun, and H. Jussila. Multifunctional all-optical logic gates with nanowire networks. submitted, 2017
  • [Publication 4]: H. Jussila, H. Yang, N. Granqvist, and Z. Sun. Surface plasmon resonance for characterization of large-area atomic-layer graphene film. Optica, 3, 2, 151-158, 2016.
    DOI: 10.1364/OPTICA.3.000151 View at publisher
  • [Publication 5]: K. Lee, Y. Tian, H. Yang, K. Mustonen, A. Martinez, Q. Dai, E. I. Kauppinen, J. Malowicki, P. Kumar, Z. Sun. Photon-pair generation with a 100 nm thick carbon nanotube film. Advanced Materials, 29, 24,1605978, 2017. Fulltext at Aaltodoc: http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:aalto-201705113890.
    DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605978 View at publisher
  • [Publication 6]: H. Jussila, T. A-Owen, H. Yang, G. Hu, S. Aksimsek, N. Graqvist, H. Lipsanen, R. Howe, Z. Sun, T. Hasan. New approach for thickness determination of solution-deposited graphene thin films. ACS Omega, 2, 6, 2630-2638, 2017. Fulltext at Aaltodoc: http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:aalto-201710137017.
    DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.7b00336 View at publisher
  • [Publication 7]: M. S. He, L. L. Zhang, H. Jiang, H. Yang, F. Fossard, H. Cui, Z. Sun, J. B. Wagner, E. I. Kauppinen,A. Loiseau. Fe-Ti-O based catalyst for large-chiral-angle single-walled carbon nanotube growth. Carbon, 107, 6, 865-871, 2016.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2016.06.099 View at publisher