Towards a Closed Loop Economy in Textile Industry: Separation, Dyeing and Re-Spinning of Cellulose Rich Textile Waste

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School of Chemical Technology | Doctoral thesis (article-based) | Defence date: 2020-06-05
Degree programme
112 + app. 79
Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS, 73/2020
This thesis targeted to improve the waste management in textile industry in terms of material  identification, waste valorization and implementation of sustainable alternatives to commercial dyes and finishing agents. A solid-state NMR method was developed to quantify the amount of cellulose in cotton polyester blends, employing a relationship between distinct peak ratios and the cellulose concentration. Furthermore, the Ioncell technology allowed to utilize both, cotton polyester blends and dyed cellulose waste, to spin new, textile grade cellulose fibers via an ionic liquid solvent system. The produced filaments displayed tensile properties superior to commercial Viscose and Tencel with titers down to the microfiber range (<1 dtex). It was also shown that the ionic liquid, 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene acetate, enabled to dissolve cellulose, while leaving behind a polyester residue, which could be recovered for conventional recycling procedures. Similarly, dyed pre- and post-consumer cotton waste was converted to pristine, colored staple fibers, which were used to manufacture a scarf and a baby jacket. In many cases, the original color of the waste fabrics translated to the new textile products, although a certain amount of leaching could be observed during the spinning process. This behavior was dependent on the nature of the dyes and was hence more pronounced for reactive dyes such as Remazoles than for vat dyes. Eventually, gold and silver nanoparticles were assessed to replace potentially polluting dyes and finishing agents. Via a hydrothermal in-situ synthesis approach, spherical nanoparticles were prepared on bleached prehydrolyzed kraft pulp, which was subsequently dry-jet wet spun to colored, UV protective man-made cellulose fibers. As a result of the incorporation technique, the fibers exhibited a better wash fastness than substrates coated via immersion or in-situ reduction only. This demonstrated that the Ioncell process offers versatile opportunities for waste reduction as it tolerates different raw materials and impurities such as synthetic fibers and colorants.
The public defense on 5th June 2020 at 12:00 will be available via remote technology. Link: Zoom Quick Guide:
Supervising professor
Sixta, Herbert, Prof., Aalto University, Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, Finland
Thesis advisor
Hummel, Michael, Prof., Aalto University, Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, Finland
ionic liquid, NMR, cotton, polyester, reactive dyes, vat dyes, gold and silver nanoparticles
Other note
  • [Publication 1]: Haslinger, Simone; Hietala, Sami; Hummel Michael; Maunu, Sirkka Liisa; Sixta, Herbert. Solid-State NMR Method for the Quantification of Cellulose and Polyester in Textile Blends. Carbohydrate Polymers, volume 207, page 11-16. 2019.
    Full text in Acris/Aaltodoc:
    DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.11.052 View at publisher
  • [Publication 2]: Haslinger, Simone; Hummel, Michael; Anghelescu-Hakala, Adina; Määttänen, Marjo; Sixta, Herbert. Upcycling of Cotton Polyester Blended Textile Waste to New Man-Made Cellulose Fibers. Elsevier. Waste Management, volume 97, page 88-96. 2019.Full text in Acris/Aatodoc:
    DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2019.07.040 View at publisher
  • [Publication 3]: Haslinger, Simone; Wang, Yingfeng; Rissanen, Marja; Lossa, Miriam Beatrice; Tanttu, Marjaana; Ilen, Elina; Määttänen, Marjo; Harlin, Ali; Hummel, Michael; Sixta, Herbert. Recycling of Vat and Reactive Dyed Textile Waste to New Colored Man-Made Cellulose Fibers. Royal Society of Chemistry. Green Chemistry, issue 21, page 5598-5610. 2019.
    Full text in Acris/Aaltodoc:
    DOI: 10.1039/C9GC02776a View at publisher
  • [Publication 4]: Haslinger, Simone; Ye, Yuhang; Rissanen, Marja; Hummel, Michael; Sixta, Herbert. Cellulose Fibers for High-Performance Textiles Functionalized with Incorporated Gold and Silver Nanoparticles. ACS Publishing. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, issue 8(1), 2020, pp. 649-658.
    DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b06385 View at publisher