On design principles and calculation methods related to energy performance of buildings in Finland

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Doctoral thesis (article-based)
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Verkkokirja (868 KB, 67,[1] s.)
TKK dissertations, 144
The EU has set the energy performance directive for buildings (2002/91/EC) in order to decrease CO2 emissions by increasing the energy performance of buildings. This directive states that the energy efficiency of buildings has to be calculated in the member states. The main objective of this thesis is to support the implementation process of this directive in Finland. This thesis focuses on the adaptation and development of simplified calculation methods related to the energy performance of buildings and on the development of design principles in order to improve the energy performance of buildings. The energy performance of buildings depends on several factors that are related to building fabric, HVAC systems, indoor and outdoor climate and behaviour of occupants. In this thesis, the studied factors are balanced ventilation system, electrically heated windows, thermal inertia of building structures and infiltration of building envelope. The effect of these factors on energy performance of buildings was studied mostly using a dynamic simulation tool IDA-ICE. In order to calculate the energy efficiency of buildings, calculation methods are needed that are sufficiently applicable and accurate. The monthly utilisation factor heat demand calculation method EN ISO 13790 can be calibrated for Finland regarding the effect of thermal inertia of building structures. The calibrated monthly method can be used for residential buildings, but should not be used for office buildings in Finland. Therefore, more-detailed dynamic methods should be used in the calculation of the energy performance of office buildings. Infiltration rate depends on several factors and calculation methods that are not able to take these factors into account explicitly should be adapted at a national level. The simple adapted infiltration model that was developed in this study, can be used to approximate the average infiltration rate of detached houses in Finland. But, dynamic building simulation with a multizone infiltration modelling is a reasonable choice for detailed infiltration and energy performance analyses.
energy performance, building, calculation method, thermal inertia, infiltration
Other note
  • [Publication 1]: Juha Jokisalo, Jarek Kurnitski, Mika Vuolle, and Antti Torkki. 2003. Performance of balanced ventilation with heat recovery in residential buildings in a cold climate. The International Journal of Ventilation, volume 2, number 3, pages 223-236.
  • [Publication 2]: Jarek Kurnitski, Juha Jokisalo, Jari Palonen, Kai Jokiranta, and Olli Seppänen. 2004. Efficiency of electrically heated windows. Energy and Buildings, volume 36, number 10, pages 1003-1010. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2004.06.007. © 2004 Elsevier Science. By permission.
  • [Publication 3]: Juha Jokisalo and Jarek Kurnitski. 2007. Performance of EN ISO 13790 utilisation factor heat demand calculation method in a cold climate. Energy and Buildings, volume 39, number 2, pages 236-247. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2006.06.007. © 2007 Elsevier Science. By permission.
  • [Publication 4]: Juha Jokisalo, Targo Kalamees, Jarek Kurnitski, Lari Eskola, Kai Jokiranta, and Juha Vinha. 2008. A comparison of measured and simulated air pressure conditions of a detached house in a cold climate. Journal of Building Physics, volume 32, number 1, pages 67-89. doi:10.1177/1744259108091901. © 2008 by authors and © 2008 SAGE Publications. By permission.
  • [Publication 5]: Juha Jokisalo, Jarek Kurnitski, Minna Korpi, Targo Kalamees, and Juha Vinha. 2009. Building leakage, infiltration, and energy performance analyses for Finnish detached houses. Building and Environment, volume 44, number 2, pages 377-387. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2008.03.014. © 2009 Elsevier Science. By permission.