Ecological and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Tigris river near the oil refineries in Iraq

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A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
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Recent Iraqi battles against ISIS in 2014 and 2015 resulted in the destruction or severe damage to several refineries' infrastructure. This, along with other factors, has led to the release and accumulation of a wide range of hazardous chemicals into the environment, for instance, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Thus, for the first time, a comprehensive 16 PAHs measurements campaign over the course of six months near the oil refineries along the Tigris River and its estuaries was investigated. The 16 PAHs concentrations in surface water and the sediments for the following oil refineries: Baiji, Kirkuk, Al-Siniyah, Qayyarah, Al-Kasak, Daura, South Refineries Company, and Maysan were examined. The overall findings indicated that the 16 PAHs concentrations ranged from 567.8 to 3750.7 ng/L for water and 5619.2–12795.0 ng/g for sediment. Water samples in South Refineries Company recorded the highest PAH concentrations while Baiji oil refinery registered the highest PAH concentrations in the sediment samples. The percentages of high molecular weight PAH (5–6 rings) in water and sediment samples were the highest, ranging from 49.41% to 81.67% and from 39.06% to 89.39% of total PAH for water and sediment, respectively. The majority of 16 PAHs measured in water and sediment samples of the Tigris River were derived from pyrogenic sources. Based on sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), most sites showed a possible effect range with occasional biological effects of most of the PAH concentrations in all sediments’ samples. The calculated incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) value was high risk with adverse health effects, including cancer.
Funding Information: The authors are appreciative of the warm work of the Co-Editor in Chief, Associate Editor, and anonymous reviewers earnestly. The authors thank the support provided by Aalto University, Finland, and Liverpool John Moors University, United Kingdom in different facilities. The opinions or views stated in this article are those of its authors. We deeply thank Dr. Zaid Al-Gazali from Nasiriyah Teaching Hospital, Ministry of Health, Al-Nasiriyah, Thi-Qar, Iraq for his logistic support. Omer Al-Obaidi, Firas Ali, Mohammed Jasim, Tahseen Salah and Redha Ahmed from the Ministry of Health, Iraq are deeply acknowledged in this work for their assistance in the sampling campaign. Funding Information: ÚNKP-22-3-I-PE-5 (Ruqayah Ali Grmasha) New National Excellence Program of the Ministry for Culture and Innovation from the source of the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund supported this research. Publisher Copyright: © 2023 The Authors
Oil refinery, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), Risk assessment, Sediment, Tigris river, Water
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Grmasha, R A, Stenger-Kovács, C, Bedewy, B A H, Al-sareji, O J, Al-Juboori, R A, Meiczinger, M & Hashim, K S 2023, ' Ecological and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Tigris river near the oil refineries in Iraq ', Environmental Research, vol. 227, 115791 .