Energy Optimization for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings with Electric Vehicles

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Sähkötekniikan korkeakoulu | Master's thesis
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Power Electronics
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EST - Master’s Programme in Electrical Engineering (TS2005)
The main goal of this study is to optimize the energy cost of a nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB) integrated with Electric Vehicle (EV). nZEB is a residential building which is able to produce the same energy on site as it consumes. nZEB simulated in this work is based on a Finnish townhouse and considered to be located in Helsinki. Two different systems are considered in the nZEB. The first system consists of photovoltaic (PV) with four installation strategies, EV, household loads and the utility grid. While PV acts like the main energy source, household loads and EV are regarded as loads in the system. nZEB is connected to the electricity grid to be able to purchase electricity when the amount of produced energy is not adequate for energy demand and to export the on-site generated electricity when the produced energy surpluses the energy demand as well. In the second system a 10 kWh battery is included to this system as the storage element. In these systems, initially the power demand profile of EVs needs to be determined. Since charging behaviors of EV users depend heavily on driving habits such as arrival time, departure time and daily travelled distance, Finnish National Travel Survey results are employed to get accurate data on driving behaviors of Finns. Power demand profiles of EVs are obtained for weekdays and weekends of four seasons. After that, optimization process is performed to minimize the daily cost of nZEB. Cost values of the system when there is no EV in the house, when EV is added and when both EV and PV strategies are involved are presented and compared. Results show that cost values decrease significantly with the addition of PV to the system. In spring and summer seasons, negative cost numbers are obtained which means profit for the customers. Comparing without storage and with storage systems, expenses are lower and earnings are higher in the system with storage.
Kyyrä, Jorma
Thesis advisor
Doroudchi, Elahe
electric vehicle, nearly zero energy buildings, optimization, photovoltaic generation
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