Characterization, modeling, and design for applications of waveguide impedance tuners and Schottky diodes at millimeter wavelengths

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Sähkötekniikan korkeakoulu | Doctoral thesis (article-based)
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Date
2011
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
Verkkokirja (5790 KB, 91 s.)
Series
Aalto University publication series DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS , 133/2011
Abstract
This work contributes to two fields of research at millimeter wavelengths: waveguide impedance tuners and Schottky diodes. Three novel impedance tuning devices for frequencies between 75-220 GHz are presented and new modeling and characterization methods applicable to millimeter-wave and THz Schottky diodes are introduced. In addition, the use of waveguide impedance tuners and Schottky diodes is demonstrated in three different applications. Waveguide tuners are used for dielectric material characterization at 75-110 GHz and in a fundamental frequency mixer diode test platform at 183 GHz. Schottky diodes characterized in this work are used in a novel MMIC frequency tripler for 75-140 GHz and in the aforementioned 183 GHz mixer diode test platform. Waveguide impedance tuners are widely used in a variety of applications at millimeter wavelengths, ranging from device matching to load-pull and noise parameter measurements. The three impedance tuners presented in this work are a multiwaveguide-band backshort, waveguide EH-tuner for 140-220 GHz, and a double-stub E-plane tuner for 75-110 GHz. All impedance tuners are based on the dielectric backshort concept, which offers resonance-free operation, low losses, and tuning with higher resolution than is possible with traditional backshorts. For example, at the center frequency of the W-band, 92 GHz, the VSWR of the multiwaveguide-band backshort is larger than 165 for all positions of the backshort and the phase resolution as a function of the backshort movement is 0.0825 (deg)/10 micrometers, which is 10 times more accurate than with a traditional backshort. The Schottky diode is the workhorse in almost all room temperature mixer and frequency multiplier applications at 100-3000 GHz. Design of Schottky-based circuits at these frequencies relies on accurate models for the Schottky diode. In this work, a novel method is presented for simultaneous extraction of Schottky diode series resistance and thermal resistance. The method avoids the inaccuracies inherent in the traditional I-V extraction methods caused by the self-heating of the diode, which can result in too small a value for the extracted series resistance. In addition, a quantitative comparison of low-frequency (1 MHz) and microwave frequency (3-10 GHz) capacitance determination techniques is performed for millimeter-wave and THz Schottky diodes.
Description
Supervising professor
Räisänen, Antti
Thesis advisor
Mallat, Juha
Närhi, Tapani
Keywords
waveguide impedance tuner, Schottky diode, mixer, frequency multiplier
Other note
Parts
  • [Publication 1]: Tero Kiuru, Ville S. Möttönen, and Antti V. Räisänen. 2007. W-band waveguide impedance tuner utilizing dielectric-based backshorts. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 55, number 8, pages 1659-1665. © 2007 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). By permission.
  • [Publication 2]: Tero Kiuru, Krista Dahlberg, Juha Mallat, Antti V. Räisänen, and Tapani Närhi. 2010. Noncontacting multiwaveguide-band backshort for millimeter wave applications. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, volume 20, number 9, pages 483-485. © 2010 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). By permission.
  • [Publication 3]: Tero Kiuru, Krista Dahlberg, Juha Mallat, Antti Räisänen, and Tapani Närhi. 2010. EH-impedance tuner with dielectric-based backshorts for millimetre wave diode testing. In: Proceedings of the 40th European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2010). Paris, France. 28-30 September 2010. Pages 1357-1360. ISBN 978-2-87487-016-3. © 2010 European Microwave Association (EuMA). By permission.
  • [Publication 4]: T. Kiuru, K. Dahlberg, J. Mallat, and A. V. Räisänen. 2010. A method for determining the dielectric constant at millimeter wave frequencies. In: Proceedings of the Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves 2010 (GSMM 2010). Incheon, Korea. 14-16 April 2010. Pages 331-334. © 2010 Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science (KIEES). By permission.
  • [Publication 5]: Tero Kiuru, Juha Mallat, Antti V. Räisänen, and Tapani Närhi. 2011. Schottky diode series resistance and thermal resistance extraction from S-parameter and temperature controlled I–V measurements. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 59, number 8, pages 2108-2116. © 2011 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). By permission.
  • [Publication 6]: Tero Kiuru, Krista Dahlberg, Juha Mallat, Antti V. Räisänen, and Tapani Närhi. 2011. Comparison of low-frequency and microwave frequency capacitance determination techniques for mm-wave Schottky diodes. In: Proceedings of the 6th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC 2011). Manchester, UK. 10-11 October 2011. Pages 53-56. ISBN 978-2-87487-023-1. © 2011 European Microwave Association (EuMA). By permission.
  • [Publication 7]: Tero Kiuru, Juha Mallat, Antti V. Räisänen, and Tapani Närhi. 2011. Compact broadband MMIC Schottky frequency tripler for 75 – 140 GHz. In: Proceedings of the 6th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC 2011). Manchester, UK. 10-11 October 2011. Pages 108-111. ISBN 978-2-87487-023-1. © 2011 European Microwave Association (EuMA). By permission.
  • [Publication 8]: Krista Dahlberg, Tero Kiuru, Juha Mallat, Antti V. Räisänen, and Tapani Närhi. 2011. Generic jig for testing mixing performance of millimeter wave Schottky diodes. In: Proceedings of the 41st European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2011). Manchester, UK. 10-13 October 2011. Pages 922-925. ISBN 978-2-87487-022-4. © 2011 European Microwave Association (EuMA). By permission.
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