Growth and properties of GaAsN structures

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Doctoral thesis (article-based)
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56, [58]
Recently, the addition of nitrogen into GaAs-based components has attracted considerable attention due to the high potential of the technique in many device applications. The N incorporation from dimethylhydrazine into GaAs1−xNx by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) was studied in this thesis. The incorporation efficiency of N into GaAs is very low and thus carefully optimized growth conditions are required. The electrical, structural, and optical properties of GaAs1−xNx were investigated with various experimental techniques. The luminescence intensity of the material degrades rapidly with increasing N composition due to the formation of nonradiative point defects. However, post-growth treatments, like laser treatment or annealing, can be used to recover the luminescence intensity. A record high N composition x of 0.056 for MOVPE-grown GaAs1−xNx was achieved by optimizing the growth conditions. Post-growth treatments were studied for optimum luminescence intensity. Comparable results were gained using annealing at 700 °C for 10 minutes and laser treatment with the laser intensity of 10 kW/cm2 for one minute. Similar growth and post-growth treatment conditions were applied to Ga1−yInyNxAs1−x quantum well structures. Annealing was found to shift the transition energy of Ga1−yInyNxAs1−x by up to 100 meV toward higher energies due to the local rearrangement of N neighboring atoms, whereas a negligible shift was observed after the laser treatment. The critical thickness for misfit dislocation formation of GaAs1−xNx on GaAs was studied with synchrotron x-ray topography. The critical thickness was found to be about twice as large as the theoretical prediction. Point defects in GaAs1−xNx were investigated using positron annihilation spectroscopy. An increasing concentration of Ga vacancies was found when the N composition x was increased. The anticorrelation between the luminescence intensity and the vacancy concentration was attributed to nonradiative recombination through the defect complexes containing the Ga vacancies.
MOVPE, metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, GaAsN, dimethylhydrazine, photoluminescence, compound semiconductor
Other note
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  • Hakkarainen T., Toivonen J., Sopanen M. and Lipsanen H., 2002. GaInNAs quantum well structures for 1.55 μm emission on GaAs by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Journal of Crystal Growth 234, pages 631-636. [article4.pdf] © 2002 Elsevier Science. By permission.
  • Hakkarainen T., Toivonen J., Sopanen M. and Lipsanen H., 2003. Wavelength extension of GaInAs / GaIn(N)As quantum dot structures grown on GaAs. Journal of Crystal Growth 248, pages 339-342. [article5.pdf] © 2003 Elsevier Science. By permission.
  • Toivonen J., Tuomi T., Riikonen J., Knuuttila L., Hakkarainen T., Sopanen M., Lipsanen H., McNally P. J., Chen W. and Lowney D., Misfit dislocations in GaAsN - GaAs interface. Accepted to Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics.
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  • Toivonen J., Hakkarainen T., Sopanen M. and Lipsanen H., 2003. Effect of post-growth laser treatment on optical properties of Ga(In)NAs quantum wells. IEE Proceedings - Optoelectronics 150, pages 68-71. [article8.pdf] © 2003 by authors and © 2003 IEE. By permission.
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