Erilaistuminen vai samanlaistuminen? : vertaileva tutkimus paperiteollisuusyhtiöiden ympäristöjohtamisesta

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School of Business | Doctoral thesis (monograph) | Defence date: 2004-04-16
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Organisaatiot ja johtaminen
Organization and Management
Degree programme
168, [27] s.
Acta Universitatis oeconomicae Helsingiensis. A, 232
Previous management literature has recognised the contradictions between institutional and competitive pressures for individual firms. The institutional perspective emphasises similarities between firms and the tendencies of firms to become similar to each other to secure legitimacy. The competitive perspective emphasises the importance of genuine strategies and practices to secure competitiveness. In practice, however, firms must simultaneously secure competitiveness by being sufficiently different from their competitors, and legitimacy by being sufficiently similar to others in the industry. In this study, the contradictions between competitive and institutional pressures and their influence on the organisation and management of companies were studied in the context of the international pulp and paper industry. The focus of the empirical study was on the environmental management of pulp and paper companies. The environmental management of the companies was analysed on three levels: environmental performance (emissions and the use of resources), environmental policies (e.g. certificates) and environmental legitimacy (the environmental image of the companies). The findings of the study indicate that the overall environmental performance of the companies analysed improved during the late 1990s. However, in some cases, decoupling between formal environmental policies and actual environmental performance exist. The facade of the company looked better than the reality, i.e. the environmental facts behind it. By being active at the policy level, firms may partly contribute to the obtaining of positive media coverage, thus enhancing their legitimacy. The environmental institutional legitimacy of firms largely coincides with the activity of firms in the adoption of formal environmental policies
Supervising professor
Lovio, Raimo, professor
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