Risks of climate change effects on renewable energy resources and the effects of their utilisation on the environment

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Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
Date
2024-06
Major/Subject
Mcode
Degree programme
Language
en
Pages
18
Series
Energy Reports, Volume 11, pp. 1517-1534
Abstract
Renewable energy resources are essential for combating climate change. However, their use, production and collection have environmental impacts and climate change effects also affect them. The unique contributions were that the risks of climate change to renewable energy resources were addressed, which is addressed rarely before. Climate change, marked the increase of Greenhouse gases (GHGs), affects ground heat source, Asphalt/concrete-covered areas and borehole energy at about 0.5 risk levels. Toxicity emerges as the primary environmental impact from ground heat sources (0.7), asphalt/concrete-covered areas (0.6), borehole energy (0.9), and sediment heat energy production (1.6). Bioenergy sufficiency and cost affect bio-oil (2.25), biodiesel (1.9), bioethanol (2.4), biogas (2.3), forest biomass (2.3), and algae (2.3) at varying risk estimate levels. The most prevalent impact, observed across all bioenergy and biomass energy sources, is on biodiversity. Extreme weather phenomena impact ground wind energy (2.7), offshore wind energy (3.4), solar panels and collectors (1.3), and hydropower (1.2) at varying risk estimate levels. Ground and offshore wind energy have effects on birds and other animals at levels of about 1.3 and 1.1, respectively. Field-based biomass energy is affected by climate change more than other renewable energy resources. Ground heat sources were the least-affected type of renewable energy and the type with the fewest effects on the environment was solar energy/collectors. The significance of the study is that it helped to make it clear that renewables are safe for the environment. This study assists renewable energy sustainability by creating attractiveness and awareness of its risk-free facts to society. One of the novelties of the study is that new renewable energy sources were included – sediment heat, asphalt heat and water heat exchangers. The research concludes that even if the risks of renewable energy are much lower than fossil fuels, they are still significant and cannot be ignored.
Description
Funding Information: We acknowledge the funding received by a doctoral researcher (Nebiyu Girgibo) from the Ella and George Foundation, the University of Vaasa Foundation and the Finnish Cultural Foundation over the course of the research. Nebiyu Girgibo also received additional salary and cost support from the Academy of Finland in the Profi 4 project at the University of Vaasa. We also would like to acknowledge the University of Vaasa for providing suitable research collaborators, resources and employment. A further acknowledgement goes out to all the experts who participated in the data-gathering process, as well as to Dr Birgitta Martinkauppi and Dr Pekka Peura, who commented on and reviewed the paper and whose assistance was invaluable. In addition, we are very thankful for the anonymous reviewers and the editor-in-chief for their help and valuable comments. Funding Information: Over the course of this research, the first author (Nebiyu Girgibo) received doctoral student funding from the Ella and George Foundation , the University of Vaasa Foundation and the Finnish Cultural Foundation. Additional salary and cost support for Nebiyu Girgibo came from the Academy of Finland funding in the Profi 4 project. The University of Vaasa was also acknowledged for the provision of suitable research collaborators, resources and employment. Publisher Copyright: © 2024 The Authors
Keywords
Bioenergy, Climate change effects, Geothermal energy, Impacts on the environment, Renewable energy, Solar-based energy
Other note
Citation
Girgibo, N, Hiltunen, E, Lü, X, Mäkiranta, A & Tuomi, V 2024, ' Risks of climate change effects on renewable energy resources and the effects of their utilisation on the environment ', Energy Reports, vol. 11, pp. 1517-1534 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2024.01.024