Expulsion of Counter Evershed Flows from Sunspot Penumbrae

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A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä
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Astrophysical Journal, Volume 952, issue 2
In addition to the Evershed flow directed from the umbra toward the outer boundary of a sunspot, under special circumstances a counter Evershed flow (CEF) in the opposite direction also occurs. We aim to characterize the proper motions and evolution of three CEFs observed by the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Japanese Hinode spacecraft and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We use state-of-the-art inversions of the radiative-transfer equation of polarized light applied to spectropolarimetric observations of the Fe i line pair around 630 nm. The three CEFs appeared within the penumbra. Two of the CEF structures, as part of their decay process, were found to move radially outwards through the penumbra parallel to the penumbral filaments with speeds, deduced from their proper motions, ranging between 65 and 117 m s−1. In these two cases, a new spot appeared in the moat of the main sunspot after the CEFs reached the outer part of the penumbra. Meanwhile, the CEFs moved away from the umbra, and their magnetic field strengths decreased. The expulsion of these two CEFs seems to be related to the normal Evershed flow. The third CEF appeared to be dragged by the rotation of a satellite spot. Chromospheric brightenings were found to be associated with the CEFs, and those CEFs that reached the umbra-penumbra boundary showed enhanced chromospheric activity. The two CEFs, for which line-of-sight velocity maps were available during their formation phase, appear as intrusions into the penumbra. They may be associated with magnetic flux emergence.
Funding Information: We would like to thank the anonymous referee for careful reading and suggestions that improved the quality of the manuscript. J. S. Castellanos Durán was funded by the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD) and the International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Solar System Science at the University of Göttingen. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No. 695075). Hinode is a Japanese mission developed and launched by ISAS/JAXA, with NAOJ as domestic partner and NASA and UKSA as international partners. It is operated by these agencies in cooperation with ESA and NSC (Norway). SDO is a mission of NASA’s Living With a Star program. Publisher Copyright: © 2023. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.
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Castellanos Durán, J S, Korpi-Lagg, A & Solanki, S K 2023, ' Expulsion of Counter Evershed Flows from Sunspot Penumbrae ', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 952, no. 2, 162, pp. 1-18 . https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/acdbc9